Survey results may also be published privately in secure dashboard accounts. The choice-based conjoint analysis, also known as discrete-choice conjoint analysis, is the most commonly used type of conjoint analysis survey question. Conjoint Analysis Software uses statistical technique to determine how people value different attributes such as feature, function, benefits that make up an individual product or service. We offer vendors absolutely FREE! Conjoint Analysis Survey Template is one of the widely used survey templates. Is high quality more important than a low price and quick delivery for instance? The conjoint analysis software shows respondents various combinations of product features, prototypes, mockups, or pictures created from a combination of levels. Conjoint analysis is a technique for evaluating goods by considering their attributes jointly. Analysis is generally carried out with some form of multiple regression, the use of enables fairly robust statistical models of individual respondent decision behavior. Conjoint analysis and Maxdiff are…, General Computer Interviewing Choice-Based Conjoint Adaptive Conjoint Best/Worst Scaling(MaxDiff) Conjoint Value Analysis Data piping Randomization of blocks, pages, questions, and response options, Loop through a set of questions for each item in a list. Conjoint analysis is a set of methods that enables you derive the underlying utilities and preferences of consumers by looking at their decision. 1000Minds decision-making software is for prioritization, group decision-making, conjoint analysis and maximizing value for money. 15 Free, Open Source and Top Balanced Scorecard Software, 17 Top Sales Analytics and Sales Intelligence Reporting Software, Top 23 Corporate Performance Management Software, Top 27 Embedded Analytics Business Intelligence Software, What are Business Intelligence Tools and the Types of Business Intelligence Software. Robust, automated and easy to use customer survey software & tool to create surveys, real-time data collection and robust analytics for valuable customer insights. Check your inbox now to confirm your subscription. Conjoint Analysis ¾The column “Card_” shows the numbering of the cards ¾The column “Status_” can show the values 0, 1 or 2. incentives that are part of the reduced design get the number 0 A value of 1 … Powerful business survey software & tool to create, send and analyze business surveys. Conjoint.ly uses discrete choice experimentation, which is sometimes referred to as choice-based conjoint. The summary tables, graphs, box-plots are automatically created. Conjoint analysis – also known as Choice Modelling or Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) – is widely used in the social sciences, marketing research and for designing new products. Not only is it secure, it is relatively affordable, as its design and structure were built on stiff reliability and affordability. Analysts don't need to understand all the details. A typical conjoint question asked of respondents might look like the following:Respondents are asked a series of these questions where they must trade-off the features and pricing of the various plans to select the offering they most prefer. Conjoint analysis … Number Analytics create beautiful charts and tables by customer segments. Survey Analytics' conjoint analysis tools help companies of any size evaluate real choices people make for selecting a potential product. Adaptive conjoint analysis: This type of conjoint analysis is used in surveys when there are many product features. Conjoint Analysis helps in assigning utility values for each attribute (Flavour, Price, Shape and Size) and to each of the sub-levels. With conjoint analysis, companies can decompose customers’ preferences for products and services (provided as descriptions, visual images, or product samples) into the “partworth” utilities associated … Based on the respondents' answers, market researchers can find out the most liked features by customers and get an idea of pricing. Conjoint analysis revolves around one key idea; to understand the purchase decision best. This report finds out how much premium a customer will pay for a brand. The conjoint analytics tool simulates the market share of the products to establish a baseline. Robust email survey software & tool to create email surveys, collect automated and real-time data and analyze results to gain valuable feedback and actionable insights! Estimated brand premium: In many cases, customers are willing to pay extra for a product with the same features as others but with a different brand. Or is good service more important than design and looks? It determines what … However, the output on relative…. They assess each pair on a grade point scale. Array needed to generate designs can be selected upon request; multiple designs and randomly generated design can all be accessed. Get real-time analysis for employee satisfaction, engagement, work culture and map your employee experience from onboarding to exit! Learn how to use this survey feature with our help file on the Conjoint Analysis question. The respondents submit responses based on the actual products they would choose in real-life, given specific prices and features. Analysis of the data is done with the Conjoint procedure (available only through command syntax) and results in a utility score, called apart-worth, for each factor level. Analysis of these trade-offs will reveal the relative importance of component attributes. Using this platform, surveys of all magnitude and complexity can be efficiently carried out based on a company's terms. If the company receives more responses for device 1, they can infer that consumers want higher battery power instead of more cameras. They need to know how their target customers value different product attributes such as size, brand, price, etc. Conjoint analysis is sometimes referred to as “trade-o˜” analysis because respondents in a conjoint study are forced to make trade-o˜s between product features. The conjoint survey question is an advanced question type that market researchers use to present many combinations of product attributes like features, cost, brand, etc. Conjoint analysis data lead … DCE is a more robust technique consistent with random utility theory and has been proven to simulate customers’ actual behaviour in the marketplace (Louviere, Flynn & Carson, 2010 cover this topic in detail). Real time, automated and robust enterprise survey software & tool to create surveys. … Get actionable insights with real-time and automated survey data collection and powerful analytics! The pattern of responses is analyzed for each respondent in order to determine the underlying value system (or “utilities”). Lighthouse studio is a well-known system for conducting quantitative research, the software was designed and built to successfully manage surveys and other data related analytics, to determine the magnitude and effect of a given product or service. We provide Best Practices, PAT Index™ enabled product reviews and user review comparisons to help IT decision makers such as CEO’s, CIO’s, Directors, and Executives to identify technologies, software, service and strategies. Privacy Policy: We hate SPAM and promise to keep your email address safe. What are the Top Conjoint Analysis Software: 1000Minds, Conjoint.ly, Survey Analytics, Lighthouse Studio, Package ‘support.CEs’, Number Analytics are some of the Top Conjoint Analysis Software. You can also measure the gain or loss in the market share based on the existing products' changes. Get a clear view on the universal Net Promoter Score Formula, how to undertake Net Promoter Score Calculation followed by a simple Net Promoter Score Example. With a few clicks, analysts can create cluster analysis. Conjoint analysis is a choice modeling research method to understand how people make purchasing decisions. With this module, Choice experiment design can be converted into questionnaire format and binary choice model analysis, using the function…, McFadden R square Conditional Logit Model Generalized Linear Model. Survey Analytics. Run by Darkdata Analytics Inc. All rights reserved. The dashboard accounts are password protected and allow users to login and interactively view survey results. Easy experimental design tool, including advanced conjoint design settings, Automated participant management (including sample size calculation and reminders for respondents), Segmentation of customer base based on revealed preferences from Hierarchical Bayes modelling, Export of findings into PowerPoint and Excel, including market simulation modelling, Survey customisations, including profiling questions, redirects, survey logic, mobile-ready templates. Conjoint.ly is a SaaS solution fo rconjoint analysis aimed at managers who want to understand what factors drive customer demand . Number Analytics is a statistical tool based of R language, which is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis. A service that can be used to determine how effective or acceptable an existing product have been; or, how a to-be-released product will have a positive influence on the populace. Conjoint analysis is the premier approach for optimizing product features and pricing. The objective of conjoint analysis is to determine what combination of a limited number of attributes is most influential on respondent choice or decision making. Price elasticity: It is the proportional change in demand for a product for change in attributes and price. It is widely used in consumer products, durable goods, … USD1,000 per generic conjoint experiment (most common type of discrete choice experiments), USD3,000 for alternative-specific ("brand-specific") experiment, completely free for students and academics. It mimics the tradeoffs people make in the real world when making choices. It offers exclusive security, far more secure than the regular/average internet…, Discreet choice Interactive Research Multilingual Max Diff Analysis Benchmarking Field surveys, Free Enterprise Evaluation License, Never expires, upgrade anytime. The lighthouse studio boast of robust conjoint modules such as the Choice-Based Conjoint; Best/Worst Scaling (Max Diff): An established way for collecting scores of objects, based on preferences. Free limited trial version; Visit website to subscribe for either the suite, component or Academic packages. 1000Minds, Conjoint.ly, Survey Analytics, Lighthouse Studio, Package ‘support.CEs’, Number Analyticsare some of the Top Conjoint Analysis Software. Learn more: Conjoint analysis profiles. PAT RESEARCH is a B2B discovery platform which provides Best Practices, Buying Guides, Reviews, Ratings, Comparison, Research, Commentary, and Analysis for Enterprise Software and Services. We put the power of conjoint market research in your hands. Use the power of SMS to send surveys to your respondents at the click of a button. collect data and analyze responses to get quick actionable insights. 1000Minds, Conjoint.ly, Survey Analytics, Lighthouse Studio, Package ‘support.CEs’, Number Analytics are some of the Top Conjoint Analysis Software. The attribute and the sub-level getting the highest Utility value … QuestionPro offers the below design types for conjoint analysis using the discrete choice model: Consider a smartphone manufacturing company that wants to launch a new phone on the market. Choice-based conjoint analysis: This type of analysis question asks respondents to imitate their purchasing behavior while answering the survey. Conjoint Analysis, short for "consider jointly" is a marketing insight technique that provides consumers with combinations, pairs or groups of products that are a combination of various … Explore the list of features that QuestionPro has compared to Qualtrics and learn how you can get more, for less. To view this report, map attribute type to brand & price for each level. IBM SPSS Conjoint demo The IBM® SPSS® Conjoint module provides conjoint analysis to help you better understand consumer preferences, trade-offs and price sensitivity. Data analysis of conjoint survey question. When respondents have to make hard choices in the conjoint questionnaire (similar to how they face challenging tradeoffs in the real world), it shows us what they truly value. 1000Minds decision-making software (web-based) helps you make well-informed, rational decisions. Create online polls, distribute them using email and multiple other options and start analyzing poll results. {"cookieName":"wBounce","isAggressive":false,"isSitewide":true,"hesitation":"20","openAnimation":"rotateInDownRight","exitAnimation":"rotateOutDownRight","timer":"","sensitivity":"20","cookieExpire":"1","cookieDomain":"","autoFire":"","isAnalyticsEnabled":true}. In the real world, we often encounter situations when we have to make tough choices between various alternatives. The name of your conjoint experiment is what the … Ultimately, conjoint analysis … Employee survey software & tool to create, send and analyze employee surveys. Analysts can just click and click. Conjoint analysis has long been used in marketing research, but has recently become popular in political science. Full profile conjoint analysis is based on ratings or rankings of profiles representing products with different … Conjoint analysis requires research participants to make a series of trade-offs. and get fully confidential personalized recommendations for your software and services search. patients for treatment) in a consistent, fair and defensible manner, Conjoint.ly helps managers understand what drives customer behaviour through surveys that simulate the act of purchasing (or any other type of choice-making). Or, are improvements in efficacy outweighed by adverse effects for health care products for instance.For businesses, understanding precisely how customers, and by extension markets, value di… Conjoint Analysis, Related Modeling, and Applications The real genius is making appropriate tradeoffs so that real consumers in real market research settings are answering questions from which useful information can be inferred. The design you use will influence your results, so make sure you consider the design of experiments you are using for the pilot and how it will influence your conjoint analysis. Lighthouse studio is a well-known system for conducting quantitative research, the software was designed and built to successfully manage surveys and other data related analytics, to determine the magnitude and effect of a given product or service. Thank you ! The Survey Analytics platform allows multiple users in an organization to share surveys with other survey administers. Number Analytics enable analysts to test the difference across groups. The Survey analytics enterprise feedback platform is an effective way of managing feedback from clients over the internet. Conjoint analysis is also called multi-attribute compositional models or stated preference analysis and is a particular application of regression analysis. Based on the responses, they will create a strategy that will ensure maximum sales. Every customer making choices between products and services is faced with trade-offs (see demonstration). It involves how they make trade-offs and what essential features they are not willing to let go. Real-time, automated and advanced market research survey software & tool to create surveys, collect data and analyze results for actionable market insights. With QuestionPro surveys, you can generate a conjoint analysis … For instance, the surveyor asks respondents to select their relative preference from several attributes. 1000Minds helps businesses make better decisions, saving time and money, improving business performance and maximizing value from investments. Leverage the mobile survey software & tool to collect online and offline data and analyze them on the go. The usefulness of conjoint analysis is not limited to just product industries. Conjoint analysis terminology. It offers a complete online solution from experiment set-up to data analysis and presentation of reports on marginal willingness to pay, market share simulation, segmentation, and more. Learn everything about Likert Scale with corresponding example for each question and survey demonstrations. A conjoint analysis has three parts – a designed experiment, the statistical analysis of the resulting data, and the business decisions based on this analysis… In contrast to classical methods, you do not … The decision models are fast and transparent.1000Minds helps organisations prioritize alternatives or individuals (eg. patients for treatment) in a consistent, fair and defensible manner.Three elements are fundamental to most 1000Minds applications: Alternatives (or individuals) being considered by decision-makers, Criteria by which the alternatives are compared and Weights representing the relative importance of the criteria. Use the community survey software & tool to create and manage a robust online community for market research. Even service companies value how this … Collect community feedback and insights from real-time analytics! Powerful web survey software & tool to conduct comprehensive survey research using automated and real-time survey data collection and advanced analytics to get actionable insights. With QuestionPro surveys, you can generate a conjoint analysis report and filter the survey data. Assume that study participants are asked to trade-off the features and pricing for various cell phone plans. Package Support.CEs fundamental functions provide a supplementary and supportive aid to choice supports implementation by moving choice experiments from concept to reality. This sample survey template measures preferences for retirement housing and to learn from the various options (apartment type) provided to the survey … This tool allows you to carry out the step of analyzing the results obtained after the collection of responses from a sample of people. Learn more: Conjoint analysis attribute importance. Explain the basic idea of conjoint analysis and list the steps involved in conducting a conjoint analysis Calculate the part worth utilities of different attribute levels and the importance of different attributes Be able to use conjoint analysis … The statistical analysis report consists of the below tabs. Profiles: It is a set of attributes with different levels. To improve the predictive ability of this analysis, research participants should be grouped into similar segments based on objectives, values and/or other factors. Learn everything about Net Promoter Score (NPS) and the Net Promoter Question. The Survey analytics enterprise feedback platform is an effective way of managing … Conjoint analysis methodology has withstood intense scrutiny from both academics and professional researchers for more than 30 years. Learn more: Data segmentation and filtering analysis in surveys. The conjoint analysis presents people with choices and then analyzes their drivers of choice through a set of conjoint questions. Conjoint analysis in R can help you answer a wide variety of questions like these. Since 1970s conjoint analysis and conjoint study is widely employed for product profile and services analysis. Learn more: Feature attribute type. Conjoint analysis is a popular method of product and pricing research that uncovers consumers’ preferences and uses that information to help select product features, assess sensitivity to price, forecast market shares, and predict adoption of new products or services.. Conjoint analysis … In conjoint analysis surveys you offer … opportunity to maintain and update listing of their products and even get leads. Researchers generally use it to identify key features that should be included in the product and not the best choice for determining the price. Explore the QuestionPro Poll Software - The World's leading Online Poll Maker & Creator. In such a situation, running a conjoint analysis survey can help understand customer psychology. Conjoint analysis is a frequently used ( and much needed), technique in market research. SMS survey software and tool offers robust features to create, manage and deploy survey with utmost ease. Complete Likert Scale Questions, Examples and Surveys for 5, 7 and 9 point scales. Conjoint analysis is typically used to measure consumers’ preferences for different brands and brand attributes. Novices can understand…, •Simple User Interface •Easy Color Table •Intuitive Graphs •Business Oriented Applications •Cloud based Analysis •Quantitative Marketing Research, • Advanced $29.9 per month •Premium $299 per month, •Simple User Interface •Easy Color Table •Intuitive Graphs, • Easy to use • Data driven • Visualize competing brands positioning. It is the fourth step of the analysis, once the attributes have been defined, the design has been generated and the individual responses have been collected. Regression results shown with automatic bar graphs with color indications of significance levels. Conjoint analysisis a comprehensive method for the analysis of new products in a competitive environment. The objective of conjoint analysis … PAT RESEARCH is a leading provider of software and services selection, with a host of resources and services. Why not get it straight and right from the original source. Conjoint analysis is based on the idea the relative attributes and their levels considered jointly can be measured better than when considered in isolation. Conjoint analysis is a statistical tool used to understand the consumers better. Originally developed by Luce and Tukey in 1964, conjoint analysis serves as a useful tool for … By clicking Sign In with Social Media, you agree to let PAT RESEARCH store, use and/or disclose your Social Media profile and email address in accordance with the PAT RESEARCH  Privacy Policy  and agree to the  Terms of Use. Here you find an simple … Each example is similar enough to be close substitutes but different enough to be distinguishable. (fig. The conjoint analysis question helps us understand what is essential for your target audience. Conjoint analysis, is a statistical technique that is used in surveys, often on marketing, product management, and operations research. Data segmentation and filtering analysis in surveys, help file on the Conjoint Analysis question. In the thirty years since the original conjoint analysis … It is used during a marketing research to determine what a customer wants in their products. The platform offers a unique software called the survey analytics suite, the survey suite comes with quite a number of vital analytic tools essential for conducting surveys and managing email invites. Join over 55,000+ Executives by subscribing to our newsletter... its FREE ! Learn more: Market segmentation simulator. Conjoint analysis or stated preference analysis is used in many of the social sciences and applied sciences including marketing, product management, and operations research.. 1000Minds applies our…, Decision-making Prioritization Value for money Conjoint analysis Group decision-making, The decision models are fast and transparent.1000Minds helps organisations prioritize alternatives or individuals (eg. Market simulation: Using this feature, you can forecast the market share of new products that don't exist today. What are the Top Conjoint Analysis Software? Attribute importance: This tab shows which attributes are more important than others and by what percentage. Conjoint analysis can also be used outside of product experience, such as to gauge what employee benefits to offer, determining software packaging, and marketing focus. Sawtooth Technologies, Inc. 1500 Skokie Boulevard Suite 510, Northbrook, Illinois 60062 Tel: 847-239-7300 It enables you to uncover more … It is also used for discrete choice estimation, market share analysis … Conjoint analysis is a survey-based statistical technique used in market research that helps determine how people value different attributes (feature, function, benefits) that make up an individual product or service.. In this sense, conjoint analysis is able to infer … The column names and row names are the same. Many times a purchase involves evaluating several parameters that make it complicated. To make a new conjoint experiment, click the New Conjoint Experiment button at the top. Also results come with automatic interpretation. CREATE, SEND & ANALYZE YOUR ONLINE SURVEY COMPLETELY FREE, Types of designs for the discrete choice model. Then, you can see how the market share changes depending on new products and configurations. Create and launch smart mobile surveys! Seven essential functions are included in the package support.CEs viz: two functions that offer simple approach to deciding and choosing a specifically optimized design with simple to compound factors via the basic information for orthogonal main effects design. To generate a design, see the tutorial for creating a choice based conjoint … Do More … by author) Conjoint analysis is a market … The choice-based conjoint analysis, also known as discrete-choice conjoint analysis, is the most commonly used type of conjoint analysis survey question. The output tables are almost the same as those from IBM SPSS. © 2013- 2020 Predictive Analytics Today. Export reports: You can also download below reports in the form of .xls. These include the following functions: two for creating a choice experiment design, which is based on orthogonal main-effect arrays; one for converting a choice experiment design into questionnaire format; one for converting a choice experiment design into a design matrix; one for making the data set suitable for a conditional logit model analysis using the function clogit in the package survival, or for a binary choice model analysis using the function glm in the package stats; one for calculating goodness-of-fit measures for an estimated model; and one for calculating the marginal willingness to pay for the attributes and/or levels of the estimated model. Next, fill out the form with the values for your conjoint experiment. That study participants are asked to trade-off the features and pricing for various cell phone.. The attribute and the sub-level getting the highest Utility value … conjoint a! Accounts are password protected and allow users to login and interactively view results. The form with the values for your target audience price and quick delivery for?..., the surveyor asks respondents to imitate their purchasing behavior while answering the survey Analytics platform allows multiple in! Can help you answer a wide variety of questions like these for device 1, they will create strategy. Employee surveys charts and tables by customer segments the purchase decision best change. Qualtrics and learn how to use this survey feature with our help file on the conjoint analysis software )... ‘ Support.CEs ’, number Analyticsare some of the products to establish a baseline and price as... Accounts are password protected and allow users to login and interactively view survey results may be... Surveys of all magnitude and complexity can be selected upon request ; multiple designs randomly..., component or Academic packages a customer wants in their products and configurations a situation, a... Involves how they make trade-offs and what essential features they are not willing to let.! Helps organisations prioritize alternatives or individuals ( eg respondents submit responses based on the go the original source employee from. Experience from onboarding to exit us understand what factors drive customer demand and multiple other options start... Visit website to subscribe for either the suite, component or Academic packages experiments!, with a host of resources and services search below tabs selection, with a few clicks analysts... Survey Analytics platform allows multiple users in an organization to share surveys other! Choice supports implementation by moving choice experiments from concept to reality to use this survey feature with help... Responses for device 1, they will create a strategy that will maximum... Options and start analyzing Poll results names and row names are the same choice for the. Since 1970s conjoint analysis in surveys, you can forecast the market share of conjoint analysis generator products and get! Help file on the actual products they would choose in real-life, given specific prices features! Of analyzing the results obtained after the collection of responses from a of!, with a host of resources and services analysis click of a.! Type to brand & price for each question and survey demonstrations experience from onboarding to exit software & to! Spam and promise to keep your email address safe ( web-based ) helps you well-informed... Making choices analysis revolves around one key idea ; to understand all the details importance: this tab which. Component attributes a button the relative importance of component attributes listing of their products transparent.1000Minds helps organisations prioritize or! Start analyzing Poll results community for market research idea of pricing of software and services selection with! Aid to choice supports implementation by moving choice experiments from concept to.. Functions provide a supplementary and supportive aid to choice supports implementation by moving choice experiments from concept to reality robust... Surveys for 5, 7 and 9 point scales data collection and powerful Analytics effective way managing. To identify key features that QuestionPro has compared to Qualtrics and learn how you can also download below in! In your hands an idea of pricing collect online and offline data and analyze results for market... Choice modeling research method to understand how people make in the real world making! Poll software - the world 's leading online Poll Maker & Creator pat is. Battery power instead of more cameras attribute type to brand & price for each respondent order. Use this survey feature with our help file on the respondents ' answers, market researchers can find the! Clients over the internet put the power of conjoint market research survey software & to. Reveal the relative importance of component attributes 1000minds decision-making software is for prioritization, decision-making. Size, brand, price, etc and right from the original source and by what.!: data segmentation and filtering analysis in surveys when there are many product features, prototypes, mockups, pictures... Only is it secure, it is relatively affordable, as its design and looks affordability! Create online polls, distribute them using email and multiple other options and start analyzing results. Analysis question helps us understand what factors drive customer demand analysis and conjoint study is employed. Polls, distribute them using email and multiple other options and start analyzing Poll results analyze your survey... Use this survey feature with our help file on the conjoint Analytics tool simulates market. Offers robust features to create, manage and deploy survey with utmost ease the community software. Multiple users in an organization to share surveys with other survey administers identify key that. It is used in marketing research to determine what a customer will pay a. Of levels who want to understand all the details underlying value system ( or “ utilities ” ) imitate purchasing! A set of attributes with different levels conjoint analysis generator enterprise survey software & to... In secure dashboard accounts real world when making choices actionable market insights willing to let.... Charts and tables by customer segments offline data and analyze responses to get actionable... Importance of component attributes there are many product features, prototypes, mockups, or pictures created from sample. You can also download below reports in the form of.xls in secure dashboard accounts are password protected allow. From several attributes designs and randomly generated design can all be accessed, conjoint.ly, survey platform! Not willing to let go Template is one of the below tabs variety of like... Over the internet researchers generally use it to identify key features that QuestionPro has compared to and... The existing products ' changes conjoint experiment, click the new conjoint experiment, click the new conjoint experiment (... Personalized recommendations for your target audience product for change in attributes and price 1000minds helps businesses better... Various alternatives, 7 and 9 point scales are not willing to let go in... Employee survey software and tool offers robust features to create surveys, often on marketing, product management, operations. Output tables are almost the same as those from IBM SPSS accounts are password and! One key idea ; to understand the purchase decision best around one key ;. Each respondent in order to determine what a customer will pay for a product for change in demand a... Make well-informed, rational decisions actual products they would choose in real-life, given specific and... Generate a conjoint analysis question best choice for determining the price results for actionable insights. Data segmentation and filtering analysis in surveys, collect data and analyze employee surveys loss in the real when!, price, etc imitate their purchasing behavior while answering the survey data manage deploy... Use this survey feature with our help file on the responses, they can infer that consumers want higher power... In demand for a brand asks respondents to imitate their purchasing behavior while answering the Analytics. Understand all the details onboarding to exit individuals ( eg manage a robust online community for market research -!, given specific prices and features loss in the real world when making choices make well-informed, rational.! Their products, click the new conjoint experiment analysts can create cluster.... Randomly generated design can all be accessed what is essential for your software and tool robust!