However, some specialists doubt this information and call for further research. The author stated that there is abundant evidence that ExSD developed in people who came into contact with the police that applied TASER to them. This issue is important for municipal authorities, as some members of the public, particularly those residing in communities characterized by racial segregation and/or systemic economic resource deprivation, may perceive inequities in the distribution of police resources in violation of procedural justice expectations (Jacob 1971). To date, the beating of Rodney King represents the archetype of police brutality, and it encapsulates multiple conceptual perspectives – from the levels of the social interactionist, workgroup, and cultural – aimed at explaining why some police officers resort to excessive force during their encounters with members of the public. In addition to discussing these conceptual issues, the paper also describes how legal mechanisms, such as judicial review and the US Code, have made the excessive use of force difficult to prove at an acceptable legal standard, which may inadvertently stifle efforts to redress abusive police practices and reform police departments in need of reforming. Potential or actual use of physical force as a defining feature of police activity, as well as one of the most frequent reasons for public concern about their actions, while at the same time it becomes, by virtue of its very nature, one of the most elusive dimensions for its knowledge. Some people believe that the police should employ any effective methods. An Empirical Analysis of Racial Di↵erences in Police Use of Force⇤ Roland G. Fryer, Jr.† July 2017 Abstract This paper explores racial di↵erences in police use of force. Toch (1996) argued that for the purposes of controlling police violence, field training officers were instrumental in bridging the gap for new officers between the messages they received in the training academy and the messages they received from their peers once on the street. One method by which to accomplish the process of communicating the department’s value system is via the field training officers (FTOs). The officer observes that the driver and his one passenger are teenage boys, most likely between the ages of 16 and 18 years. Several articles reveal the high level of dissatisfaction with the police methods among people with mental problems. Rodney King had broken a primary subcultural rule in policing: When initially contacted by the team of California Highway Patrol officers who attempted to stop his vehicle for speeding on Interstate 210 in the San Fernando Valley area of Los Angeles, he failed to pull over for them. Van Maanen (1978) observed that a suspect’s initial response to a police officer’s inquiry determined the officer’s categorization of him (Van Maanen never clarifies as to whether the template applies to female suspects), as well as the subsequent police reaction. This is the Federal civil rights statute that allows persons alleging harm by police (and any representative of the State who may have acted under color of authority) to seek damages from both the individual officer(s) and the government agency that employed them. The literature is in general agreement that police are in a very precarious situation when it comes to the amount of force they can apply when dealing with a civilian suspect. IvyPanda. This inciting incident led to 6 days of rioting in Watts, leading to 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, and over 3,000 arrests (Barnhill 2010). The writer is not to take a stance, either for or against deadly force. Kane (2005) made similar findings in New York City in his examination of the consequences of “over-policing” and police misconduct (including violence) on violent crime. Police use of force research paper >>> next John mongan essay Admissions essay on the person you admire same is with me and the person that influenced me the most and whom i admire is my father. This finding supports Muir’s observation that even socalled professional police officers may become “enforcers” under the circumstances that elicit particularly strong responses, and perhaps where local social constraints are wanting. The authors concluded that these tools would have a great impact on police methods in the future. Also, the article revealed some statistics regarding the use of TASER devices. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of criminal justice research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. Templates, such as Muir’s (1977) extortionate transaction model, Van Maanen’s (1978) “asshole” perspective, Herbert’s (1997) identification of workgroup “normative orders,” and Skolnick and Fyfe’s (1993) elaboration of the “siege” mentality, show that police brutality may be influenced at every level of a police officer’s contextual occupational life. This model of procedural justice generally argues that the way a state achieves and maintains legitimacy is by distributing its authority through consensus-based processes without regard for the social and economic statuses of societal subgroups. "Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill." December 24, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/police-force-in-interactions-with-mentally-ill/. ... police brutality is defined as the use of excessive and/ or unnecessary force by police when dealing with civilians. Essay on college canteen condensation research paper obstacle college essay, essay on my ambition in life to become a fashion designeressay christmas song: essay writing topic my best friendother ways to say states in an essay how to give your opinion in a research paper, easy outline for research paper: mann gulch critical thinkingthe journey is more important than the destination essay odyssey As of July 2016, there is still no standardized national data collection effort, despite a call from several presidential and civil rights commissions to do so. After a pause, the driver says, “Why do you need that? However, TASER chest shots were banned. This is IvyPanda's free database of academic paper samples. Police Use of Force: A Review of the Literature Page 3 of 12 Introduction Our research led to 22 articles with information relevant to the subject of police use of force. Why? Through the use of discriminant function analysis, Kane and Cronin reported that during coercive exchanges with suspects (i.e., situations that ultimately ended in arrest), suspects who demonstrated “verbal antagonism” toward officers – but not physical resistance – were likely to be “punched” and “kicked” during the incident. In this work, the authors demonstrated the results of community-based participatory research. “Police officers should use only the amount of force necessary to control an incident, effective arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm or death.” (National Institute of Justice) Unfortunately, at times there are some police officers have felt that they are above this rule and have used excessive force in unnecessary situations. In the next article, the author raised the issue of excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) caused by the use of TASER devices. Even in the most “obvious” and infamous examples of police brutality, it is frequently the case that at some point during the violent encounter, some force on the part of police was justified – perhaps even necessary – to preserve officer and/or public safety. They studied the visions of the participants with mental illness on procedural justice relating to their contacts with the police. This research examined the skills and abilities required of officers to effectively manage situations where the use of force may be required. The effectiveness of some methods is compromised by the severe health damage that they might cause. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 11(1), 53-64. On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. Purpose – This paper aims to build on and contribute to earlier studies on use of force by the police, and examines both officer and suspect force levels during altercations. Although emerging evidence supports the practices of screening out applicants on the basis of employment and criminal histories to prevent general misconduct (see: Kane and White 2012), there is virtually no evidence that “violence-prone” (Toch 1996) police officers can be identified and effectively screened out through the normal recruiting process. Use this topic or order a custom research paper, written exactly how you need it to be. Police Use Of Force Essay, Research Paper As Robert Cover established in his essay, Violence and the Word, violence is an integral aspect of legal practices. Police throughout the United States use firearms, beat detainees, use methods that make them choking, and use unreasonably brutal measures of physical pressure without sufficient justification. Also check the list of 100 most popular argumentative research paper topics. The studies explored a variety of topics, ranging from media coverage of force to characteristics of deadly force encounters and many issues in between. Indeed, the McCone Commission, empanelled just a few months after the riots and charged with identifying the causes, noted from its many interviews of AfricanAmerican Watts residents: —–“Police brutality” has been the recurring charge. While the chief administrator is an important part of the process within the organization, it must be noted that the chief also represents the will of the community. In highlighting this reality, Klockars (1985) notes that if a crazy resident goes into the yard of his neighbor to chop down a prized apple tree with an axe, seeking an injunction against such an intrusion likely will not prevent the destruction of the apple tree. Some would conclude that the force used by the officer was unnecessary, excessive, and perhaps even illegal; others may conclude that the officer rightly punished a smart-aleck kid who needed to be taught to respect authority. Can TASER electronic control devices cause cardiac arrest? Even after the suspect is securely cuffed and clearly incapacitated, the other officer punches him with a closed fist in the kidney two times just after the other officer pulled him from the ground. During his research, Muir observed four police officer personality “types” that were differentiated by two elements: the abilities to (1) empathize with those whom they encountered on the street, and (2) morally reconcile need to use force in certain circumstances. Rather, police officers are legally (and usually administratively) permitted to “skip” steps on the use of force continuum in order to overwhelm a suspect – within reason – to achieve custody. AN EXAMINATION OF POLICE BRUTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES: WORKING AND LIVING IN A STATE OF FEAR Latrice Marshall Under the Supervision of Ann Krebs Byrne, MSE For this research paper, police brutality and the use of excessive force against minorities, specifically Black males, were examined. Police Ethics - Use of Deadly Force by Law Enforcement Research Papers look at the political, legal, and social side to this debate. It is common knowledge that at times, some police officers use more force than is necessary on suspects they encounter; some engage in profit-motivated misconduct and then lie on the witness stand to protect their corrupt enterprises; and these practices often take place in the most socially and economically vulnerable communities (Kane 2002). Thus, and as Muir notes, enforcers were problematic to police workgroups partly because they frequently engaged in excessive force, and partly because they often caused potentially violent encounters to escalate into actual violent encounters. Accordingly, our research questions are aimed at understanding how use of force policies, police violence, and public health intersect. Though it is the case that occupational templates-perspectives often fail to yield empirical support, at least one recent study has offered some empirical validation of Van Maanen’s (1978) “asshole” thesis. 2004, pp. The confidence that officers placed in their ability to freely “punish” suspects who committed affronts against police authority was perhaps best illustrated by the routine exchanges among officers via their mobile data terminals in which anecdotes describing violent activities – often in racist terminology – were openly exchanged (see: Independent Commission (1991)). At their best, the police use their coercive authority to improve the life chances of people they contact – often under the most abject social and economic conditions imaginable. California Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots (1965) Violence in the city: an end or a beginning? And again, commentators of police behaviors may disagree as to the appropriateness of the officer’s actions. In his classic lecture, “Politics as a Vocation,” Max Weber (see: Weber et al. In addition, the authors emphasized the significance of further research in this area. "Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill." December 24, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/police-force-in-interactions-with-mentally-ill/. A research paper about police brutality must show how highly publicized incidents demonstrate that police misconduct has severe adverse effects on victims of abuse and diminishes public trust in law enforcement. Anderson argued that the Code – in which respect was valued as a social good, earned and maintained by the threat and/or use of violence – prevailed in the north Philadelphia community he studied in part because the police had virtually no legitimacy due to their perceived abuses of authority. A typical example of this occurs when police respond to a man with a gun call. However, such tools could cause severe health problems. In such events, therefore, the point of the police is to stop – or at the very least – freeze a moment in time in order for the courts to gain the opportunity to properly adjudicate the case. Research Method Starting at the individual-level, in his largely ethnographic study of the police in “Laconia” (a pseudonym), Muir (1977) interviewed and then observed a group of police officers in an effort to understand how they responded to “critical” incidents in their work settings. Currently, these prevention strategies are rooted in the areas of recruitment and training, as well as the proper supervision of officers in the field. More than 7,000 security force agencies in the United States apply CEWs including the use of TASER devices. Despite this landmark decision that made the “defense of life” standard the law of the land, the Court in Garner failed to outline circumstances under which deadly force was permissible. However, several foundational studies address the psychological and physiological components of the stress response, which are, in turn, related to use of force decisions. However, there are many questionable aspects regarding the use of this law-enforcement tool. Anderson E (1999) Code of the street: decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. The Metropolitan Police Act, 1829 - The Metropolitan Police Act, 1829 Research Papers discuss a new law that provided a more efficient police force. Police use of force is the application in a law enforcement capacity of physical or psychological coercion against citizens. Such are the conditions that most often allow officers to engage in abuse of authority – including excessive force – with little fear of recourse (e.g., Kane 2002; Kubrin and Weitzer 2003). The authors of the next study discussed the problem of cardiac arrest caused by the use of TASER devices. Sage, Beverly Hills Kubrin C, Weitzer R (2003) Retaliatory homicide: concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood culture. As ExDS is a mental medical condition, it is highly important to avoid using CEWs on people with psychic disorders. The young man screams in surprise and pain, while the officer repeats the motion of bashing his head against the hood. The officer then advises, “The next time a police officer asks for your driver’s license, I suggest you give it to him the first time.” Then officer then turns, walks back to his patrol car, enters, and drives away. Incident 2: A police officer working traffic duty sits in his marked cruiser at mid-day. Once these types of force are defined, the paper focuses on excessive force, also commonly referred to as police brutality (e.g., Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). Controversial police use-of-force incidents have spurred protests and calls for reform across the nation. Police Officer Use of Deadly Force Research Paper. When he observes a pickup truck roll confidently through the intersection without stopping, the officer ignites his engine, activates the light bar, and pulls quickly away from the curb to initiate a vehicle stop on the truck. IvyPanda. For example, the archetypal officer in Muir’s typology was the “professional” – i.e., a collective group of officers who could place themselves psychologically in the life circumstances of the suspects they encountered, and although professionals did not care to use force to resolve most conflicts during their engagements with members of the public, they used force when necessary to stop conflict, protect lives, and restore order. Thus, Garner allows officers to determine the meaning of “life” threatening: The risk to life need not be real at the time of the incident; it must be apparent. In: Manning PK, Van Maanen J (eds) Policing: a view from the street. It is also likely that people who experience physical abuse at the hands of police may suffer emotional trauma. You can use them for inspiration, an insight into a particular topic, a handy source of reference, or even just as a template of a certain type of paper. I need a 16-page research paper on the topic of: Police Officer Use of Deadly Force Research Paper.The writer is not to take a stance, either for or against deadly force. In short, American citizens under the best of circumstances have the ability to mobilize government on their behalf in ways that could theoretically bypass the police entirely, and yet, most Americans – even those who have had bad experiences with them – would scarcely advocate dissolving the police as a public institution. For example, officers confronted by a suspect they label as “dangerous” will likely invoke the normative order of safety to minimize the threat of violence. Moreover, despite scant support for the typology itself, at least one study has found that – like Muir’s findings – officers who exhibit certain personality characteristics (diffuse though they may be) often “slide” between profiles as the social contexts in which they work vary (Hochstedler 1981). The injured became unconscious right after they got an electric shock. On August 11, 1965, a white California Highway Patrol officer stopped an African-American motorist in the Watts section of Los Angeles for suspected Driving While Intoxicated. The authors revealed the cases of the biased behaviors of the policemen towards mentally ill people. The problem of CEWs still has many unclear aspects. Until measures such as these are implemented, however, the excessive use of force by individual police officers is unlikely to come to an end. MIT Press, Cambridge, Wood DB (2002) L.A.’s darkest days. They might arrive on the scene to find an agitated man pacing in his front yard with a pistol in hand. In the first article, the authors scrutinize the cases of interactions between the police and people with mental illness (Livingston et al., 2014). Once the situational exigencies were neutralized, professionals ceased their use of physical force. From the arresting officer s use of force, to the sentence a judge passes down, to the actual implementation of the sentence, the legal process is riddled with violent acts and interpretations. In 2016, the Police Executive Research Forum, a national organization of police officials, issued recommendations on use of force that provide a “guardian” model for policing. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. ), often for their stated positions on certain issues, such as violent crime, fear of crime, urban disorder, etc. The study revealed the deterioration of symptoms in individuals with such problems caused by the use of TASER devices. (2020) 'Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill'. Chief administrators for police departments are usually chosen by the elected bodies of local governments (e.g., city councils, county boards of supervisors, etc. 1983, Barnhill JH (2010) Watts riots (1965). The unaccountability was particularly pronounced under Chief Daryl Gates, who enjoyed civil service protection and indemnity from lawsuits (Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). A key attribute of professionals was their ability to communicate effectively with suspects in ways that often minimized, de-escalated, or even eliminated the need to use force during many incidents. In addition to the direct effects of police brutality to those who experience such abuse, there are often broader sociological consequences that may result when police engage in the excessive use of force, particularly when the force is systemic in nature and occurs in communities whose residents perceive that they have been socially and legally marginalized by their municipal governments. It may be that Muir’s findings hold primarily for postindustrial port cities with large urban African-American populations that live predominantly in poverty conditions, socially isolated from the larger urban matrix. If the public becomes polarized over issues related to the distribution of legal authority, the government may lose legitimacy and find it difficult to fulfill its “regulatory role” in society (Sunshine and Tyler 2003, p. 515) without having to resort to the frequent use of physical coercion. Yale University Press, New Haven, Van Maanen J (1978) The asshole. Therefore, some misconceptions might be seen in various publications on this topic. An extensive survey conducted jointly by the MIT, University of California, the University of Washington and the Harvard Medical School surveyed emergency physicians for cases of patients subjected to excessive police force. The authors of another article discussed the issue of the police use of TASER devices on people with mental illness. Jauchem, J. R. (2015). Police Patrol - Police Patrol Research Papers discuss a sample order placed that requires two journal articles, and provides specific questions that need to be answered. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, Fyfe J (1979) Administrative interventions on police shooting discretion: an empirical examination. Kubrin and Weitzer (2003) were among the first researchers to find social scientific evidence supporting the above arguments. As part of this discussion the concepts of excessive force and deadly force will also be covered in detail The issue of police use of force is tricky. These events tended to trigger an uncharacteristic response in the officer – perhaps due to family history or other personal experience – leading him to take on the attributes of the enforcer: He was quick to use violence as an initial response when contacting an alleged domestic or sexual assault offender. Although no identified studies have found reliable empirical support for Muir’s typology (see, for example, Hochstedler (1981)), none has tested the typology in a setting that replicates that in which Muir conducted his research. 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