From the 6th century BC on, the multiethnic people in this region gradually intermixed with each other, creating a Greco-Getic populace. The dominant ideals of Hellenistic art were those of sensuality and passion.[143]. The Greek kingdom of Bactria began as a breakaway satrapy of the Seleucid empire, which, because of the size of the empire, had significant freedom from central control. The end result was the complete conquest of Sicily, including its previously powerful Greek cities, by the Romans. Most of the native population was not Hellenized, had little access to Greek culture and often found themselves discriminated against by their Hellenic overlords. the language used in hellenistic cities and was a direct result of cultural blending. His son and successor, Nicomedes I, founded Nicomedia, which soon rose to great prosperity, and during his long reign (c. 278 – c. 255 BC), as well as those of his successors, the kingdom of Bithynia held a considerable place among the minor monarchies of Anatolia. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt though Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods until the Muslim conquest. Hellenistic Culture * greek culture blended with egyptian, persian, and indian influences. Despite being ruled by a dynasty which was a descendant of the Persian Achaemenid Empire it became hellenized due to the influence of the Greek cities on the Black Sea and its neighboring kingdoms. Created by. Antipater was made regent of the Empire, and the two kings were moved to Macedon. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek rule. [65] After the death of Ptolemy IV (204 BC), Antiochus took advantage of the weakness of Egypt to conquer Coele-Syria in the fifth Syrian war (202–195 BC). [54] External possessions such as Cyprus and Cyrene were run by strategoi, military commanders appointed by the crown. For Greeks, the center of the earth was no longer Delphi; the center had shifted dramatically. The Sophists proclaimed the centrality of humanity and agnosticism; the belief in Euhemerism (the view that the gods were simply ancient kings and heroes), became popular. The term Hellenistic is a modern invention; the Hellenistic World not only included a huge area covering the whole of the Aegean, rather than the Classical Greece focused on the Poleis of Athens and Sparta, but also a huge time range. While the Hellenistic world incorporated a number of different people, Greek thinking, mores, and way of life dominated the public affairs of the time. Ptolemaic Egypt was the center of Hellenistic influence in Africa and Greek colonies also thrived in the region of Cyrene, Libya. The Hellenistic period saw the Greek alphabet spread into southern Gaul from Massalia (3rd and 2nd centuries BC) and according to Strabo, Massalia was also a center of education, where Celts went to learn Greek. Title: Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic Culture 1 Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic Culture. [59][61][62][63] The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by emigration from Greece. the Tobiads). These new kingdoms were also influenced by the indigenous cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary, or convenient. Apart from these cities, there were also a large number of Seleucid garrisons (choria), military colonies (katoikiai) and Greek villages (komai) which the Seleucids planted throughout the empire to cement their rule. The conquered lands included Asia Minor, Assyria, the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Media, Persia, and parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the steppes of central Asia. Pergamum was also a center of parchment (charta pergamena) production. Add your answer and earn points. The years of constant campaigning had taken their toll however, and Alexander died in 323 BC. This period also marks the beginning of the obfuscation of Greco-Bactrian history. Alexandria, a major center of Greek culture and trade, became his capital city. Philip V, who came to power when Doson died in 221 BC, was the last Macedonian ruler with both the talent and the opportunity to unite Greece and preserve its independence against the "cloud rising in the west": the ever-increasing power of Rome. The characteristics of the Hellenistic period include the division of Alexander's empire, the spread of Greek culture and language, and the flourishing of the arts, science and philosophy. is best known as Alexander the Great -- and with good reason. Their last king, Nicomedes IV, was unable to maintain himself against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and, after being restored to his throne by the Roman Senate, he bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Roman republic (74 BC). The "Brihat-Samhita" of the mathematician Varahamihira says: "The Greeks, though impure, must be honored since they were trained in sciences and therein, excelled others...".[91]. [138], The interpretation of Hellenistic science varies widely. But they poured forth from the hands of the copyists in a profusion that is almost incredible when we consider that the art of printing by movable type was unknown. [77] Aretas captured Damascus and built the Petra pool complex and gardens in the Hellenistic style. It was against this backdrop that the ascendancy of Macedon began, under king Philip II. This was a time of advances in learning, math, art, and architecture. The struggles with Rome had left Greece depopulated and demoralised. The focus on the Hellenistic period over the course of the 19th century by scholars and historians has led to an issue common to the study of historical periods; historians see the period of focus as a mirror of the period in which they are living. Hellenistic art nevertheless had a considerable influence on the cultures that had been affected by the Hellenistic expansion. Greece city-states weak after the Peloponnesian Wars ; 359 B.C. Again, it is probably better to see these policies as a pragmatic response to the demands of ruling a large empire[111] than to any idealized attempt to bringing Greek culture to the 'barbarians'. The third era of ancient Greek history was the Hellenistic Age when the Greek language and culture spread throughout the Mediterranean world. [64] This occupation with the inner life, with personal inner liberty and with the pursuit of eudaimonia is what all Hellenistic philosophical schools have in common.[126]. Article shared by: ADVERTISEMENTS: The modern country called Greece in the continent of Europe is generally referred to as ‘Island of Hellas’. Attalus severely defeated the Gauls, forcing them to confine themselves to Galatia. Though this comparison is now seen as unfair and meaningless, it has been noted that even commentators of the time saw the end of a cultural era which could not be matched again. Influenced by Philinus of Cos (fl. The numismatic evidence together with archaeological finds and the scant historical records suggest that the fusion of eastern and western cultures reached its peak in the Indo-Greek kingdom. 173-179. Carthaginian culture came into contact with the Greeks through Punic colonies in Sicily and through their widespread Mediterranean trade network. He once again laid siege to Athens after they turned on him, but then struck a treaty with the Athenians and Ptolemy, which allowed him to cross over to Asia Minor and wage war on Lysimachus' holdings in Ionia, leaving his son Antigonus Gonatas in Greece. [23] Lysimachus, who had seized Macedon and Thessaly for himself, was forced into war when Seleucus invaded his territories in Asia Minor and was defeated and killed in 281 BC at the Battle of Corupedium, near Sardis. Finally, in 27 BC, Augustus directly annexed Greece to the new Roman Empire as the province of Achaea. 280 BC), the Boeotian league, the "Northern League" (Byzantium, Chalcedon, Heraclea Pontica and Tium)[28] and the "Nesiotic League" of the Cyclades. [105] He thereby completed both the destruction of the Hellenistic kingdoms and the Roman Republic, and ended (in hindsight) the Hellenistic era. [148] A parallel can be drawn with the productivity of the city states of Italy during the Renaissance, and their subsequent decline under autocratic rulers. In 255 BC, Ariarathes III took the title of king and married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II, remaining an ally of the Seleucid kingdom. Alexander's tutor was the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE) who impressed upon him the value of Greek culture and philosophy. [95] Numismatic evidence shows that Hellenic influence penetrated further inland. In Asia, Eumenes was betrayed by his own men after years of campaign and was given up to Antigonus who had him executed. They were scholar poets, writing not only poetry but treatises on Homer and other archaic and classical Greek literature.[108]. The spread of Greek influence and language is also shown through ancient Greek coinage. Pretty pretty please helppp literally all my points How did Alexander the Great help spread Hellenistic culture? As a result of the confusion in Greece at the end of the Second Macedonian War, the Seleucid Empire also became entangled with the Romans. Many came to use Alexandria’s library. Typically, historians start the Hellenistic Age with the death of Alexander, whose empire spread from India to Africa, in 323 B.C.It follows the Classical Age and precedes the incorporation of the Greek empire within the Roman empire in 146 B.C. [130] He was also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis (again with remarkable accuracy). Greek cities and colonies may have exported Greek art and architecture as far as the Indus, but these were mostly enclaves of Greek culture for the transplanted Greek elite. Some ethnic groups were known for their martial skill in a particular mode of combat and were highly sought after, including Tarantine cavalry, Cretan archers, Rhodian slingers and Thracian peltasts. The Greek empha­sis on physical culture and on beauty also spread throughout the Near East. Spartan hegemony was succeeded by a Theban hegemony after the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), but after the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), all of Greece was so weakened that no one state could claim pre-eminence. The popular philosopher Epicurus promoted a view of disinterested gods living far away from the human realm in metakosmia. The Bosporan Kingdom was a multi-ethnic kingdom of Greek city states and local tribal peoples such as the Maeotians, Thracians, Crimean Scythians and Cimmerians under the Spartocid dynasty (438–110 BC). Hellenistic religion - Hellenistic religion - History: The conquests of Alexander opened the way for religious interchange between East and West; the political structures left behind by Alexander and continued by his successors provided strong incentives for the hellenization of native religions. Even barbarians, such as the Galatians, were depicted in heroic form, prefiguring the artistic theme of the noble savage. Flashcards. They continued to attack neighboring kingdoms such as Bithynia and Pergamon, plundering and extracting tribute. It became a center of culture and commerce, its coins were widely circulated and its philosophical schools became one of the best in the Mediterranean. Other sources include Justin's (2nd century AD) epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrian's Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Terms in this set (30) Greek blended with _,_,_ and becomes known as _ Persian Indian Egyptian Hellinistic. The poet-critic Callimachus, a staunch elitist, wrote hymns equating Ptolemy II to Zeus and Apollo. In 189 BC, Rome sent Gnaeus Manlius Vulso on an expedition against the Galatians. Antiochus then banned key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007, p. 44. During the Hellenistic period, many different schools of thought developed, and these schools of Hellenistic philosophy had a significant influence on the Greek and Roman ruling elite. University of California Press. The decisive engagement of the war came when Lysimachus invaded and overran much of western Anatolia, but was soon isolated by Antigonus and Demetrius near Ipsus in Phrygia. Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 117–118. One man, Alexander, King of Macedonia, a Greek-speaker, is responsible for this blending of cultures. Between 301 and 219 BC the Ptolemies ruled Judea in relative peace, and Jews often found themselves working in the Ptolemaic administration and army, which led to the rise of a Hellenized Jewish elite class (e.g. After the Battle of Beneventum (275 BC) Pyrrhus lost all his Italian holdings and left for Epirus. The hellenization of the Nabateans occurred relatively late in comparison to the surrounding regions. For geographical distribution of Greek speakers, see. Apollodotus I was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II, likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I. Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion, and, to a lesser extent, language over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. christine0129. The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998. Seleucus received Indian war elephants from the Mauryan empire, and used them to good effect at the battle of Ipsus. Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 11. Most of the great literary figures of the Hellenistic period studied at Alexandria and conducted research there. Initially the whole empire was divided among them; however, some territories were lost relatively quickly, or only remained nominally under Macedonian rule. [139] At the other is the view of the Italian physicist and mathematician Lucio Russo, who claims that scientific method was actually born in the 3rd century BC, to be forgotten during the Roman period and only revived in the Renaissance.[140]. Hinüber (2000), pp. From 37 BC to 4 BC, Herod the Great ruled as a Jewish-Roman client king appointed by the Roman Senate. In the aftermath of this victory, Antigonus took the title of king (basileus) and bestowed it on his son Demetrius Poliorcetes, the rest of the Diadochi soon followed suit. Bolos of Mendes made developments in alchemy and Theophrastus was known for his work in plant classification. It was a time of relative peace, after the Wars of the Diadochi (322-275 BC). [83][84] Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BC to 63 BC. The conquests of Alexander greatly widened the horizons of the Greek world, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant. It was not until Cleopatra VII that a Ptolemaic ruler bothered to learn the Egyptian language of their subjects. 2 King Philip IIs Macedonian Empire. One example is Athens, which had been decisively defeated by Antipater in the Lamian war (323–322 BC) and had its port in the Piraeus garrisoned by Macedonian troops who supported a conservative oligarchy. The Ptolemaic Tessarakonteres was the largest ship constructed in Antiquity. The reason for the production of this translation seems to be that many of the Alexandrian Jews had lost the ability to speak Hebrew and Aramaic.[81]. [7] This mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Undoubtedly Greek influence did spread through the Hellenistic realms, but to what extent, and whether this was a deliberate policy or mere cultural diffusion, have been hotly debated. The Parthians used Greek as well as their own Parthian language (though lesser than Greek) as languages of administration and also used Greek drachmas as coinage. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. The Odrysian Kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes under the kings of the powerful Odrysian tribe centered around the region of Thrace. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. Hellenistic poets now sought patronage from kings, and wrote works in their honor. After their defeat in the First Punic War, Carthage hired a Spartan mercenary captain, Xanthippus of Carthage, to reform their military forces. With a skilled navy to protect its trade fleets from pirates and an ideal strategic position covering the routes from the east into the Aegean, Rhodes prospered during the Hellenistic period. The motif of deceptively realistic naturalism in art (aletheia) is reflected in stories such as that of the painter Zeuxis, who was said to have painted grapes that seemed so real that birds came and pecked at them. While there does seem to have been a substantial decline in religiosity, this was mostly reserved for the educated classes.[122]. After holding out for one year under siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes (305–304 BC), the Rhodians built the Colossus of Rhodes to commemorate their victory. Following division of Alexander's empire, Seleucus I Nicator received Babylonia. Other regions had established contact with Greek colonies before this period, and simply saw a continued process of Hellenization and intermixing. Recently, however, papyrologist C. Préaux has concentrated predominantly on the economic system, interactions between kings and cities, and provides a generally pessimistic view on the period. Widespread Roman interference in the Greek world was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendancy of the Roman Republic. Oxford University Press page 255. 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