The medicalization of deviance, the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition, is an important shift that has transformed the way society views deviance. According to the cognitive development theory, criminal and deviant behavior results from the way in which individuals organize their thoughts around morality and the law. 1. Foreign schools only mention these ideas briefly and refute them with sociological studies in social deviance courses. Merton’s strain theory is an important contribution to the study of crime and deviance – in the 1940s it helped to explain why crime continued to exist in countries, such as America, which were experiencing increasing economic growth and wealth. The theory primarily pertains to formal deviance, using biological reasons to explain criminality, though it can certainly extend to informal deviance. According to the functionalist theory, crime and deviance arise due to the way a society is structured. THE ABC’s of DEVIANCE A = Attitudes Achieved statuses based upon beliefs or convictions B = Behaviors Often Achieved statuses based on outward actions. According to sociologists like Emile Durkheim, George Herbert Mead, and Kai T. Erikson, deviance is functional to society and keeps stability by defining boundaries.In 1966 Erikson expanded labeling theory to include the functions of deviance, illustrating how societal reactions to deviance stigmatize the offender and separate him or her from the rest of society. This video outlines the work of Lemert who wrote about about primary deviance and secondary deviance. ALEXANDER LIAZOS AND CONFLICT THEORY OF DEVIANCE. Biological theories of deviance have been seen as racist, since ideas such as eugenics have been justified with these theories. https://amara.org/v/C0ACG/ Who defines what is deviant and how to people come to behave that way? Émile Durkheim believed that deviance is a necessary part of a successful society. Deviant behavior can also be explained by psychological trauma in one's past. The theory of atavism, also referred to as sociobiology, was a concept developed by the criminologist Cesare Lombroso (1835 – 1909) that offers a biological explanation for criminal deviance. ). Not everyone agrees about why some people break rules while others follow them. Deviance can be criminal or non‐criminal. -- theory argues that in the last 100+ years, there has been a shift in which social institution primary is associated with the labeling/"handling" of deviance and deviants. This theory believes that society pushes individuals toward deviance by overemphasizing the importance of success while failing to provide legitimate means to … Psychological theories of deviance do not necessarily have a biological element. He argued that deviance is a basis for change and innovation, and it is also a way of defining or clarifying important social norms. Labeling theory tries to explain deviant behavior by suggesting that people given a negative or deviant label by society can be influenced by that label. The Three Main Theories of Deviance and Their Strengths and Weaknesses A functionalist analysis of deviance looks for the source of deviance in the nature of society rather than in the biological or psychological nature of the individual. Major theory Related explanation Summary of explanation; Functionalist: Durkheim’s views: Deviance has several functions: (a) it clarifies norms and increases conformity, (b) it strengthens social bonds among the people reacting to the deviant, and (c) it can help lead to positive social change. It provides the key passages about deviance that should be read in the original and offers students a varied theoretical background for the study of deviance. Explanations of deviance attempt to account for why non normative behavior occurs. Theories of deviance 1 1. Robert K. Merton’s strain theory of deviance argues that some deviant behavior, such as drug addiction, is caused by the relinquishment by certain individuals of socially-acceptable goals. Sociological Theories of Deviance Anomie theory Anomie refers to the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist. Recorded with http://screencast-o-matic.com Help us caption & translate this video! The sociological discipline that deals with crime (behavior that violates laws) is criminology (also known as criminal justice). Now that you have learned some of the main theories of deviance, you are ready to put your sociological perspective in gear and find out what other people’s views are on this topic. Functions of Deviance. (Some explanatory formulations turn the equation around and ask why normative – but for them, the logic is the same.) The labeling theory of deviance is influenced by symbolic interaction. Deviance is “the recognized violation of cultural norms” (Macionis, 2015, p. 198). Craig is an experienced Sociology teacher and examiner and is known as The Sociology Guy on social media. Explanatory Theories of Deviance. The Continuing Relevance of Strain Theory . Deviance from conflict perspective can be explain by breaking up the theories of Karl Marx. Share: Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Linkedin Share on Google Share by email. Social disorganization theory, strain theory, and cultural deviance theory represent three functionalist perspectives on deviance in society. Social-Conflict Theory Of Deviance And Social Control In Society. By exploring theories of social deviance, we can begin to understand factors – such as age, race, class, gender and location – influencing drug usage. US schools are currently the only schools that consider biological theories of deviance in any detail. You may recall there are three dominant theoretical perspectives in sociology: social conflict theory, structural functional theory and symbolic interaction theory. A biological interpretation of formal deviance was first advanced by the Italian School of Criminology, a school of thought originating from Italy during the mid-nineteenth century. Theories of Deviance. Functionalists have the viewpoint that shared norms and values are important to social order and the success of society. Take, for example, the case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). May als… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Cesare Lombroso. In the 1960s, Robert Merton used the term to describe the differences between socially accepted goals and the availability of means to achieve those goals. Sociology Student videos Crime and Deviance; Craig Gelling. Marxist Theories of Crime and Deviance - Law Creation. Sociologists who apply this theory study social structure and social function. This lesson will focus on the social conflict theory of deviance. How Cognitive Development Theory Explains Deviance . Theories and Examples of Deviance. Lemert postulated that after someone carries out a deviant act (primary deviance) the reaction of others can lead to further (secondary) deviance. Émile Durkheim: The Essential Nature of Deviance. There are many different theories and perspectives on why people do things like abuse drugs, and although we my never have all the answers, sociology still help us to understand the problem better. Theories of Deviance Applied to Drug Use Since the dawn of society there have been people whose behavior differed from the rest of society. A deviance might be an activity that is considered strange or unacceptable by society. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE exposes students to theoretical foundation statements from diverse sociological perspectives. Assignment 2: Theories of Deviance: Interview Analysis. In defining deviance, there is a different or unexpected action when compared to an established standard. Indeed, Lemert (1967) and others came to propose that attention should shift away from deviant acts and people towards the phenomena of control. Psychological theories of deviance do not necessarily have a biological element. French sociologist Émile Durkheim based his work on this theory. His theory states that criminal deviance is inherited and this inheritance is visible in the shape of the human skull. Deviant behavior can also be explained by psychological trauma in one’s past. Those who follow the work of Karl Marx concerning criminology are known as Marxist criminologist. The second approach to deviance encompasses explanatory theories. Take, for example, the case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Deviance is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient severity to warrant disapproval from the majority of society. The crux of Karl Marx theory is that, society is evolving continuously and evolution is inevitable. Each of these theories can be applied to the concept of deviance. Lawrence Kohlberg, a developmental psychologist, theorized that there are three levels of moral reasoning.During the first stage, called the pre-conventional stage, … Historically Few people rule and other were being ruled […] Deviance - Deviance - Sociological perspectives: French sociologist Émile Durkheim viewed deviance as an inevitable part of how society functions. Title of the Presentation Chapter Four: Major Theories of Deviance • Anomie Theory • Conflict Theories • Labeling Theory • Control Theory • Learning or Socialization Theory 2. Theories of deviance were thus potentially wider by far in their reach than criminology and they made the criminal law, criminalization, and the facts of crime newly and interestingly problematic. Deviance, like conformity, is shaped by society. Reasons for deviance vary, and different explanations have been proposed. What is social deviance? [1] : 204 The labelling theory helps to explain this shift, as behaviour that used to be judged morally are now being transformed into an objective clinical diagnosis. Durkheim argued that deviance is a normal and necessary part of any society because it contributes to the social order. Print page. In earlier times in Western Europe and America, the religious institutions had the social power to define/label deviant behavior and to "treat" it (e.g., exorcisms, etc. Conflict theory, structural functional theory and symbolic interaction theory be applied to the way a is... 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