The plant species has also been investigated for use in treating gastritis. It is a hybrid between Pelargonium zonale and Pelargonium inquinans. Landscape Uses – Bedding plant, Container plant, Hanging basket, Summer interest Limitations/Other Features – Africa Origin, Deadheading required September 26, 2012 / by Aeron Matthew Tags: Geranium , hortorum , Pelargonium In the wild, Pelargonium inquinans is a small shrub, about 2 m tall, branched, with young succulent twigs becoming woody with age, bearing red glandular hairs. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. P. zonale is the parent of many, if not most, ornamental hybrids, such as the popular P. x hortum, the common garden pelargonium (Miller, 1996; … Traces of its cultivation are then found in the gardens of the Duchess of Beaufort in England, an aristocrat passionate about exotic flowers that employed many gardeners to grow seeds brought back by sailors from abroad. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Cultivars with very double flowers and no anthers are called Rosebud Pelargoniums since the flowers never open completely and therefore resemble a rose. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. × New and Unread Tree-Mails. Zonal geraniums are basically tropical perennials and they overwinter in zones as cool as zone 7.[4]. The toxic potential was classified as safe according to results from an assay on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) using extracts of EPs 7630. Results document the efficacy of EPs 7630 versus placebo in reducing severity of symptoms, improving quality of life, and shortening the duration of sick leave by nearly 2 days. folklore and uses of herbal plants in the genus Pelargonium. No serious adverse reactions were reported.32, 33, EPs 7630 inhibited Helicobacter pylori growth and reduced bacterial adherence to gastric epithelial adrenogenital syndrome cells. Join now. During major exhibitions where growers present their latest creations, competitions are organized to award gold medals to outstanding cultivars. Rooting continues in good conditions for up to 3 weeks. Because of poor seed viability, a clonal method of propagation has been developed to reduce pressure on natural populations.4, The plant species indigenous to areas of South Africa are widely used by traditional healers of the Zulu, Basuto, Xhosa, and Mfengi tribes to treat dysentery, diarrhea, hepatic complaints, wounds, colds, fatigue, fevers, generalized weakness, and infections of the respiratory tract including tuberculosis.4, 5 Western use of the P. sidoides and P. reniforme species to treat tuberculosis is traced back to the Englishman Major Charles Stevens in 1897 when he was treated by a tribal healer with an extract from the roots of Pelargonium species.2, Originally, the plant source of the drug was identified as P. reniforme; however, further botanical investigations discovered the closely related species P. sidoides, which is now predominately used for therapeutic purposes.2. Use the fresh flowers to decorate cakes and other edibles. The English varieties were valued for their robustness, the French varieties for the beauty of their flowers. The DMAA extract from P. graveolens was marketed in the 1940s as an inhaled local vasoconstrictor for nasal congestion. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. Although they are often grown as annuals, they may overwinter in zones as cool as zone 7. Zonal geraniums grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 9 through 12. However, a study in rats documented no pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions between EPs 7630 and warfarin.36, 37, Clinical trials enrolling nearly 2,500 adults and children document mostly allergic reactions or GI complaints (eg, gastric pain, heart burn, nausea, diarrhea). Available for Android and iOS devices. Citronella Pelargonium Overview. You might be surprised to know that these common plants are not geraniums at all. 1). Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. The term is not felt to be fully part of the common language and still remains marked as scholarly. It blooms for a very long time (throughout the summer) and abundantly, however, most cultivated varieties do not produce seeds. The flowers are very pretty and edible and so are useful in decorating iced goods, etc. The therapy also protected against complications. Citronella Pelargonium Overview. One report recommends caution if used during pregnancy.36, An interaction may be possible when patients are receiving anticoagulant medications (eg, warfarin) or antiplatelet drugs (eg, aspirin). Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Dec 2020), ASHP (updated 3 Dec 2020) and others. Round or kidney shaped leaves are velvety and hairy, soft to the touch, aromatic, with edges indistinctly lobed and scallop toothed. Close × Share This Page. Pelargonium citronellum is a strongly scented herb that releases a lemony fresh scent when touched. It may also act as an immune system booster, and alleviate symptoms of the common cold and herpes. The plant species has also been investigated for use in treating gastritis. This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. The genus Pelargonium is divided into sections based on morphological and other features. In Germany, pharmacovigilance studies found case reports of allergic reactions associated with the use of Pelargonium extract.36 Additional surveillance studies document similar results.28, Case studies linking the use of DMAA-containing products (ie, Jack3d) to fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions and cerebral hemorrhage have led to these products being banned by the New Zealand Ministry of Health and from being sold in stores on military bases by the US Department of defense. Common Name: Geranium Family: Geraniaceae Juss. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. One clinical trial administered 4.5 mL 3 times daily for 7 days, corresponding to a total daily dose of plant material of approximately 1.2 g.25 A second trial used the same dosing schedule.26 Other dosage regimens used in clinical trials include the following17: Other Dosage Regimens Used in Clinical Trials. The stems of cuttings turn black with rot. Clinical trials of EPs 7630 in acute bronchitis have been conducted in children and adults.25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 The primary outcome or review of efficacy for most of the trials are changes in the Bronchitis Severity Score (ie, coughing, expectoration, chest pain, dyspnea, wheezing) from baseline versus the last observation (ie, final observation typically within 1 week). The herb has long been used to treat cough, sore throat, congestion, and other respiratory ailments. Pelargonium are plants that evoke a holiday in the sun, with their rounded clusters of vivid red or orange flowers and bushy leaves, often strongly marked with purple or red. Scientific Name(s): Pelargonium graveolens, Pelargonium reniforme Curt., Pelargonium sidoides DC.Common Name(s): African geranium, Kaloba, Kalwerbossie, Rabassamin, Umcka, Umckabo, Umckaloaba, Zucol. All these factors contribute to the craze for geraniums, one of the easiest plants to grow and the most floriferous. Sparsely branched stems grow from the base and display deep red to black flowers, and the species is distinguished by the cordate or heart-shaped leaves. It prefers a dry atmosphere and a lot of space. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. Adverse events were slightly higher with treatment versus placebo and none were serious (eg, GI, allergic skin reactions, urticarial).38, A meta-analysis of 4 randomized clinical trials, including 1,647 patients, supported the plant's efficacy in reducing bronchitis symptoms. Additionally, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency has extended warnings to several companies to stop selling DMAA-containing products in the UK.40. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age. Preferred name: Pelargonium x hortorum ; Authority: Bailey ; Notes. Pelargonium hortorum is a shrubbby succulent perennial stemmed to 3 ft. or more. Formulations studied included tablets (10 to 30 mg 3 times daily X 7 days) and alcohol-extract liquid preparations (3 X 10 to 60 drops X 7 to 30 days). The therapy was well tolerated, with no serious adverse reactions during the trials examined. There is a bewildering array of Pelargoniums in cultivation, but in addition to the species and the primary hybrids, the varieties that are most commonly used as garden and pot plants can be separated into six groups.. The name was created by the American botanist Liberty Hyde Bailey who in 1914, writes "The large number of forms of the common geranium, derives from the variation and probably the crossing of P. zonale and P. inquinans (and possibly others) during more than a century of careful selections". It was only during the second half of the 18th century that the foundations of hybridization and floral biology began to be established through the work of two remarkable German experimenter Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel (1750–1816). Clinical trials enrolling nearly 2,500 adults and children document mostly allergic reactions or GI complaints (eg, gastric pain, heartburn, nausea, diarrhea). Red geraniums attract butterflies and hummingbirds to the garden. EPs 7630 is an 11% aqueous ethanolic extract in which 100 g of finished product corresponds to 8 g of extracted plant material. True geraniums are perennials called cranesbill geraniums. P. sidoides and P. reniforme are marketed as Umckaloaba or Zucol for bronchitis and pharyngitis. Most species of geraniums are annuals and have originated in South Africa. View fullsize. Both the plant and the essential oil derived out of it have medicinal uses. Flowering occurs without interruption from spring until the last days of autumn. It is also used as a flavoring for food and alcoholic drinks. Until the middle of the 19th century, England had a monopoly on obtaining by planting varieties zoned delicate colors. EPs 7630 suppressed H. pylori growth in brain-heart infusion broth at a concentration of 100 mcg/mL and reduced H. pylori adherence at concentrations of 50 mcg/mL or more. They are stocky and large. The treatment regimen consisted of 20 drops 3 times a day (3 mL per day), 30 minutes before or after meals for a maximum period of 6 days. Similar results were observed in a Salmonella reversion test. A classic choice for summer annual containers and window boxes, though evergreen perennials where hardy. Pelargonium translates from the Greek word pelargos as "stork", again due to the similarity in shape of the fruits to a stork (or crane's) elongated beak. The South African geranium (Pelargonium sidoides), also known as the black geranium or Cape pelargonium, is an herb long used in South African traditional medicine. Despite a murky beginning in early 20th century herbal promotions, there appears to be some evidence for efficacy in treating bronchitis due to Pelargonium's direct antibiotic effect and host immune stimulation. Pelargonium sidoides, also known as African geranium, is a plant-derived pharmaceutical used to treat acute bronchitis. Edward F. Gilman and Teresa Howe 2. Pelargonium citronellum is a strongly scented herb that releases a lemony fresh scent when touched. Currently, most gardeners, amateur or professional, know perfectly well that the geraniums that decorate the balconies are Pelargonium but they are reluctant to use the term they find too pedantic. Pelargonium tomentosum is an attractive garden plant. Immune stimulation by P. sidoides extracts, coumarins, and phenolics has been documented in a variety of functional assays19, 20 including enhancement of interferon-beta synthesis and activation of natural killer cell activity.21 Tannins from the plant induced nitric oxide synthase and cytokine gene expression in a macrophage-like cell line.8 The butanol root extract has antimycobacterial activity.22. EPs 7630 is an ethanolic extract of the roots of P. sidoides, which is marketed by ISO-Arzneimittel under license from Schwabe. A gray mold may be seen on the leaves. Name Authority; Pelargonium hybridum (Linnaeus) L'Héritier: Pelargonium inquinans x P. zonale: Pelargonium x hortorum: Bailey: Pelargonium x hybridum (Linnaeus) Aiton: Pelargonium zonale hybrids: Patients treated with EPs 7630 had reduced severity of symptoms and shortened duration of illness by at least 2 days. Many cultivars have been grown since the late eighteenth century. Inclusion criteria involved patients diagnosed with acute bronchitis within 48 hours who were not receiving antibiotic therapy, and who had no obvious contraindications to therapy. Manufacturer dosage guidelines for Zucol suggest 3 lozenges every day for 6 days, even if symptoms are reduced. With the first, the technique of obtaining first and second generation hybrids is described for the first time. The broad spectrum of activity against viruses and bacteria may be caused by the coumarins and phenolic acids.1, 2, An extract of P. graveolens, DMAA, is an aliphatic amine with sympathomimetic properties and is known by numerous other names including methylhexaneamine, 1,3-dimethylpentylamine, and Geranamine.40, Numerous in vitro, animal, and clinical studies document the plant's antibacterial activity. In India this plant is grown in most of the South Indian states and in some North Indian states mainly for the essential oil which is used by the perfume manufactures. However, there are some geraniums that are perennials that look much different. The ancestors of Pelargonium zonal group are two species of wild pelargoniums of South Africa called Geranium Africanum. The flowers can be single or double, and have five petals positioned regularly around the center. The specific epithet hortorum is a genitive form of the Latin hortus "garden" and therefore corresponds to "horticultural". The genus Pelargonium comprises approximately 280 known species, of which 80% are grown in the interior of South Africa.1 Both of the title plant species are distinguished by the color of the flowers, the shape of the leaves, and the pollen color. For over 200 years now, gardeners have known that their garden geraniums (zonal geraniums, scented geraniums, ivy geraniums, etc.) Sown in a sandy substrate, it easily germinates at a temperature of 16–18° C. Zonal geraniums grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 9 through 12. Zonal geraniums are basically tropical perennials. His fortune enabled him to employ about fifteen gardeners to maintain a botanical garden in Essex and three to four artists to paint his plants. Henry Compton , Bishop of London, had been a botanical collection in the garden of Fulham Palace. It is important to distinguish the botanical Latin term "Geranium", the extent of which has varied according to botanical knowledge over the centuries and the vernacular name of the French language "geranium" whose extension is defined by several centuries of use by amateur and professional gardeners. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Flower Color: Pink, Red, Violet, White. Tilled in the apartment in the summer tolerates well room temperature, in winter it is better to take it to a colder room with a temperature not exceeding 16° C. In summer, the plant indoors must be watered 2–3 times a week, whilst the geraniums growing in the field in full sun must be watered every day, morning or evening. Activity.34, 35 weak evidence supported effectiveness for symptom relief of acute rhinosinusitis and the common in. 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[ 4 ] or loam soil the! Action is primarily related to its antiadhesion activity.34, 35 plants to grow and common... Strong light and some direct sunlight clinical trials have used doses of extract corresponding 1.2... Aromatic, with edges indistinctly lobed and scallop toothed the 1980s hybrid between Pelargonium zonale Pelargonium... No anthers are called Rosebud pelargoniums since the 1980s the subject of 20 clinical studies involving more than 24,000 drugs. The herb has long been used to treat acute bronchitis certain health and medical conditions other. The touch, aromatic, with edges indistinctly lobed and scallop toothed for windowsills and balconies or in! Of action is primarily related to its domesticated usage as a bed plant information, identify pills, check and... Of general information about this product may be seen on the variety no anthers are called Rosebud pelargoniums the... 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