It was for just this situation that the 75 had been moved up. After seeing a battery of 75s in action near Milhausen, France, one French citizen recalled observing a German artillery battery set up on high ground near a cemetery, posting their horses and limbers on some low ground nearby. This 6.76 kg (14.9 lb) round travelled at 625 m/s (2,050 ft/s) and contained 1.5 pounds of TNT filling and choice of Super Quick (SQ) or Delay (PD) with 0.05 or 0.15 seco… WWII Quarterly, the hardcover journal of the Second World War that is not available in bookstores or on newsstands, and can only be obtained and collected through a personal subscription through the mail. Summoning the director of the government arsenal at Bourges, Mathieu asked if such a design could be made to work. But there’s NEVER been anything like THIS before. The French 75:The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery (Osprey New Vanguard 288) Steven J. Zaloga ), XHTML: You can use these tags:
. Manufacture of the French 75 by American industry began in the spring of 1918 and quickly built up to an accelerated pace. After World War II, the French 75 was quickly retired from most European armies, although some soldiered on in the Third World. With a direct view of the battlefield, the French battery could pour fire right into the massed German formation. But there’s NEVER been anything like THIS before. Made from the latest metal filled filament to give an authentic metallic look and feel, mounted on a specially designed 3D printed base, housed in … A cheer went up from the French lines as the attackers broke and retreated to the comparative safety of their trenches, but the 75s were not yet done. When he returned, he announced to Mathieu that such a gun could indeed be made. The M-3 was replaced late in the war by the M-7 105mm self-propelled gun. field gun, was the best medium field artillery gun of the war. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for 75). The Germans used captured examples In the annals of military history magazines, this is one of those moments. He contacted the director of another arsenal in Pateaux, just outside Paris, the Chatillon-Commentry Gun Foundry. It changed the world more than any other single event in history. as anti-tank guns in 1944. By 1945, the weapon had been eclipsed by new designs, but the 75 remains perhaps the quintessential Allied artillery piece of World War I. Anyone wanting access to the museum or kitshop MUST book an appointment. In 1892, General Charles Mathieu, the French artillery director, came into possession of a secret German report concerning a revolutionary new cannon that utilized a new “long-recoil” principle. The US designation of the basic weapon was 75-mm Gun M1897. In the St. Mihiel offensive, the American guns fired a barrage of one million rounds in just four hours. The French 75m field artillery gun with the hydraulic recoil mechanism enabled accurate and rapid fire, without the need to reposition the gun after each shot. 1 Motorized Artillery Reg., 1 Armoured Div. The French used the gun until 1940. Various regulations were put into place to assure the secrecy of the 75’s internal mechanism. The top cylinder held hydraulic fluid, while the bottom held compressed gas. Large numbers still equipped the French Army, and after the fall of France the Germans used captured pieces, including a battery fired against the Canadians at Dieppe. This cannon was used to support an attack with direct fire right on the front lines. The weapon was used for decades (including in American tanks) which was a testament to its inherently excellent design. Artillery in Britain issued 75mm guns with wooden wheels due to a shortage of This fortified position was holding up the advance, so the Pirate Gun was called up to destroy it. The 75mm M1897 earned its reputation in the Great War, forming the backbone of French field artillery. As the man watched, a French battery of four 75s opened fire on the Germans and “demolished the material and killed almost all the cannoneers, directed its fire on the limbers posted in the bottom land and killed a great number of horses.”. The needs of the war gave rise to some interesting and unconventional uses of the 75 as well. To book an appointment call 204-765-3000 ext 4563. The seat was only really useful if the gun’s recoil was sufficiently managed by the new recoil system to keep the gun from jumping when fired. In the end, all the efforts paid off. Luckily, the French could produce enough 75s to equip both armies as well as provide ammunition and training facilities for the arriving Americans, who took an immediate liking to their new cannon. Times when the very landscape appears to shift. LCol Norman Bruce (Ike) Buchanan, MC with 2 Bars, ED (1915-2008), MGen HON Brownfield CBE, MC, CD (1894-1958), LGen Sir HE Burstall KCB, KCMG (1870-1945), General, The Honourable HDG Crerar PC, CH, CB, DSO, CD (1888-1965). The 75 was credited with helping the attack succeed with far fewer casualties than usual. The “Soixante­quinze,” France's legendary 75mm Modele 1897, was the first modern field gun, pioneering several critical innovations in field artillery designs, including a fast action breech and a soft recoil system. They adopted the French pattern of equipping their batteries with four guns each instead of six, since the 75’s rate of fire meant that a four-gun battery had the same firepower as a normal six-gun unit. The French 75mm Gun Was a Staple of WWI by Warfare History Network A regiment of Bavarian infantry advanced quietly in the dark, rising from … It now sprang into action. A regiment of Bavarian infantry advanced quietly in the dark, rising from its own trenches and moving toward the French lines across the desolate no-man’s-land in between. After nightfall the gun was again pushed forward, this time to fire on a farmhouse the enemy had occupied. No contracts were signed, nor did Mathieu seek approval from his superiors. Deport’s specification called for a weapon of 75mm caliber, but the heart of the new weapon would be the recoil system. Initially produced under great secrecy, with details of its design jealously guarded by the French government, the soixante-quinze went on to have a long, worldwide history of service that lasted well into World War II. The battery commander gave the order for each gun to fire 30 rounds, and the crews obeyed as fast as they could service their guns. Weapons of War — The French 75mm Field Gun. The floating piston was of particular interest to those wanting to copy the gun’s design because of the way it was sealed to prevent the fluid and gas from mixing. At its introduction, the 75 represented a huge leap ahead in artillery technology, heralding in a new era of fast-firing, deadly cannons. It changed the world more than any other single event in history. The 75mm gun incorporated the first modern recoil system, a fixed round of ammunition (loaded in one step), and a quick-firing breech. French 75mm mle/1897 The French 75mm mle/1897 has a Nordenfelt Eccentric Screw Breech making it capable of firing up to 24 rounds per minute. Guns like the French 75mm generally fire rounds at a low angle while mortars fire rounds only at a high angle. The M-61 armor-piercing round created for the gun could penetrate up to three inches of armor at 1,000 yards, quite respectable for the early years of the war. It was the French Army’s primary field gun during WW1. An offensive weapon, the 75 was ill-suited for trench warfare. A port connected the two cylinders and a floating piston kept the gas and liquid apart. The features of other guns were adapted as well. Range of fire was up to four miles. Above: The French manufactured limber for the French 75mm mle/1897 field gun. How France's Deadly 75mm Cannon Revolutionized Artillery. 75mm French Field Gun Mle 1897 Modified 1938: Number: 35056: Scale: 1:35 : Type: Full kit : Released: 2019 | Initial release - new tool: Barcode: 5907747901360 (EAN) Topic: 75 mm Field gun Schneider » Cannons (Guns) (Read more about the artillery and weapons that shaped the 20th century inside the pages of Military Heritage magazine. In the U.S. Army, although newer artillery pieces had started to finally come into service, 75s still found use. Only certain maintenance functions could be performed at the battery level, and even these had to be carried out with an officer present. One American battalion used its guns individually, taking advantage of the 75’s high firing rate to dupe the Germans into thinking an entire battery was in action. It was capable of a high rate of fire and had a gun shield. It was then carefully hidden from German view. IBG offers two variants: 1/35 75mm French Field Gun Mle 1897 – Modified 1938 1/35 75mm French Field Gun Mle 1897 – Polish Forces in the West This required great practice and precision in the reloading process, as the gun would scarcely have finished its recoil motion at a rate of one round per two seconds. French 75 mm field gun is an artillery: field gun. Still, Mathieu’s curiosity was piqued. This would put four rounds on the target in only six seconds, equal to all the guns of a battery firing at once. A crash program to develop a stopgap antitank gun mated the 75 to a M-3 halftrack chassis until dedicated tank destroyers were fielded. French 75, field gun of 75-mm (2.95-inch) bore devised in 1894 by Colonel Albert Deport of the French army. When the Americans entered the war in 1917, there were severe shortages of all sorts of military equipment, including artillery. The tube was eight feet, three inches long, which equated to 33 calibers (the length of the tube divided by the diameter). With the loss of their machine guns, the Germans retreated and the American attack succeeded. Nearby sat the means of their undoing—a battery of four cannons, each a Model 1897 French “75 gun” positioned a mile away but with a clear line of sight. To book an appointment call 204-765-3000 ext 4563. No-man’s- land became a hell of high explosives and shrapnel, quickly overwhelming the Germans’ ability to continue their attack. 75mm French Field Gun entered service in French Army in 1898. This iconic gun is considered the first modern artillery piece, thanks to its hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism. The Marines used them in both the antitank role, where they proved quite effective against the thinly armored Japanese tanks, and in direct fire support roles, destroying enemy bunkers and fixed emplacements, although in this role the 75’s thin armor and open top exposed it to attack. At the war’s beginning in 1914, some 4,000 75mm cannons were in the French inventory; thousands more would be produced during the conflict. When the M1897 or M1897M1 carriages are equipped with handspike, model designation of the M1897 carriage is changed to M1897M1A2 and of the M1897M1 carriage is changed to M1897M1A2. Some were captured and later used by the Japanese before American troops recaptured the islands—and the 75s—later in the war. The 75-mm gun carriages manufactured in this country are designated M1897M1. It is often referred to as the first modern artillery piece. The French 75mm quick firing field gun was a game changing weapon. It was the French Army’s primary field gun during WW1. French artillery in the Great War was dominated by the 75 mm Mle 1897. One American unit, Battery F of the 149th Field Artillery Battalion, part of the 42nd Infantry Division, came up with the so-called Pirate Gun. The director returned to his arsenal to discuss the design with other engineers and officers; they returned after three days of study, saying the weapon’s design was simply not feasible. The primary round was the M48 High Explosive. French 75 mm Field Gun Facts The field gun was devised by Colonel Albert Deport of the French army It was distinguished from other cannons of its time by recoil system The barrel and breech recoiled on rollers while the gun carriage itself remained in place instead of There have been countless thousands of published works devoted to all or of it. Adopted by the French army in 1897, it was the first gun to be equipped with a hydro-pneumatic recoil system, which allowed the gun to be fired in … The End! Carriages were built by Willys-Overland, the hydro-pneumatic recuperators by Singer Manufacturing and … Mathieu was disappointed but not yet ready to give up. vehicle and 6 Gunners. The RCA Museum: 204-765-3000 ext 3570 or 4563. All correspondence was kept confidential, including the weekly reports Deport made to Mathieu. Half the 3,000 guns used were 75s, which fired two-thirds of all the ammunition expended in the offensive. This problem was solved by equipping the field artillery regiments with the French 75mm mle 1897 field gun. The French 75mm Field Gun (“Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897”) is widely considered to be the first modern artillery piece. It retains its French Horizon Blue paint on the interior. Additionally, gun shields for crew protection and a seat for the gunner were adapted to the new cannon. The French soixante-quinze, in typical American fashion, was pronounced “saucy can,” and the doughboys of the American Expeditionary Force found it accurate and reliable. By the war’s end, American 75s had fired more than six million rounds in all, mostly in conventional barrages to support attacks or defend against enemy assaults. The 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion used them in the fighting around El Guettar in March 1943, knocking out 30 German tanks while sustaining the loss of 21 M-3s in the effort. When America entered the war, the US Army adopted the French design for its field artillery batteries and fielded more than 1900 guns by the war's end. These included a separate sighting device not attached to the gun tube, which enabled the sight be moved independently of the barrel. Even civilians gave testament to its power. Masks are currently mandatory. These roaming sections would move frequently, towing the 75 behind a truck rather than the usual team of horses. The cannon’s breech assembly was of the Nordenfeldt type, a rotating block with a notch cut into one side. This was such an important detail that French artillery officers were forbidden to have any knowledge of it—in fact, they were not allowed to see the piston itself when it was disassembled from the gun. It has elevation and traversing mechanisms with handles for the gunner on the left hand side of the gun. This “counterrecoil” pushed the gun back into firing position, ready for the next shot. Secrecy about the new 75 was maintained even after the cannon entered service with the French Army. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). If the German troops could surprise their enemies and gain a foothold, they could break the wretched stalemate that paralyzed the Western Front during World War I. It was introduced in 1897 and was the first fully integrated quick-firing gun. technological innovation and the first modern artillery system. It was simple and reliable. There have been countless thousands of published works devoted to all or of it. Hours of Operation: Monday to Friday from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM. The versatile and mobile French 75mm cannon was a revolutionary design that saw widespread use during both world wars. Although the French were attempting to design a whole new class of cannon, they did not hesitate to adopt features from other guns they thought might work. This gave the gunners the mobility to make one gun do the work of several different batteries firing from different locations. The Soixante-Quinze, the French 75 mm. It was the French Army’s primary field gun during WW1. Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897. The 75mm gun incorporated the first modern recoil system, a fixed round of ammunition (loaded in one step), and a quick firing breech. When the preparatory barrage began, the gun stayed quiet, taking no part in the initial shelling. There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. The firing capability proved both useful and deadly on the Western Front during World War I, where the Allies’ enemies had to fight their way through thick, hellish barrages of 75mm fire. Beneath the gun’s barrel lay a cradle that held two hydraulic cylinders. By the time the first American 75s went into action on October 23, 1917, the AEF possessed some 270 Model 1897s, enough to equip at least 64 batteries. Overall, the M-3 was deemed unsuccessful, largely because it was often used aggressively in direct support of attacking infantry, where its thin armor was a detriment. The 75s next saw action during the fighting in North Africa in late 1942 and early 1943. 35056 By Ray Mehlberger MSRP: $23/95 at Kit Linx or at 8 locations overseas on the web. An experienced crew could fire up to one shell every two seconds with a maximum range of 9,000 meters. The weapon had advanced to the trial stage but had failed during testing. The French 75: The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery Osprey Publishing Osprey New Vanguard 288 ISBN: 9781472839305 2020 Вдогонку к 75mm Mle1897 (подборка документов) att. RCHA Kitshop: 204-765-3000 ext 3533. In the hands of a highly trained gun crew, rates of fire as high as 30 rounds per minute were possible. | 1942 | … antonkachinskiy PDF .JPG отсюда The four guns fired 80 more rounds into the fleeing Germans, completing the rout. The US Army adopted the 75mm in 1918. This increased the rate of fire dramatically. The guns were quickly put to good use. Industry began in the annals of military equipment, including its carriage, just... In battle the Japanese before American troops recaptured the islands—and the 75s—later in the late 1800s for aiming gun... From their trenches and advanced, they immediately came under heavy fire a! 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