Other names germanium(II) selenide. Germanium forms stable oxidation states of +2 and +4, the compounds of the latter being more stable and numerous. Omissions? [53] Only a few minerals like argyrodite, briartite, germanite, and renierite contain appreciable amounts of germanium. Silicon has superior electrical properties, but it requires much greater purity that could not be commercially achieved in the early years of semiconductor electronics. [88], U.S. Food and Drug Administration research has concluded that inorganic germanium, when used as a nutritional supplement, "presents potential human health hazard". Source: Radioisotopes and Radiation Methodology I, II. Other names Germanium(IV) chloride Germanium chloride Company: WWW.GuideChem.COM: Address: 8F, Block C, No.3 Building, Zijin Plaza, No.701, Gudun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310030, China: Telephone +86-571-89739798: Fax: 86(21)54365166: 1.5 … [35], The first organogermanium compound was synthesized by Winkler in 1887; the reaction of germanium tetrachloride with diethylzinc yielded tetraethylgermane (Ge(C2H5)4). [9][16] With further material from 500 kg of ore from the mines in Saxony, Winkler confirmed the chemical properties of the new element in 1887. [78] The high brilliance of this polyester is especially favored for PET bottles marketed in Japan. Historically, the first decade of semiconductor electronics was based entirely on germanium. [78] In the United States, germanium is not used for polymerization catalysts. Today, germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silver, lead, and copper ores. [1] [2]History. Alternative Title: Ge. Identifiers CAS Number. How well do you know astronomy? Our germanium page has over 240 facts that span 97 different quantities. Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. [25] From 1950 through the early 1970s, this area provided an increasing market for germanium, but then high-purity silicon began replacing germanium in transistors, diodes, and rectifiers. [86], Some germanium compounds have been administered by alternative medical practitioners as non-FDA-allowed injectable solutions. Formula: Help Key datasets. He initially considered the new element to be eka-antimony, but was soon convinced that it was instead eka-silicon. He predicted that the then unknown element germanium should resemble silicon in its properties. Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. Germanium comes in two forms: organic and inorganic. Mol. It also forms as a passivation layer on pure germanium in contact with atmospheric oxygen. Help Regulatory context. (The name germanium derives from the Latin word Germania [Germany] and was given to the element by Winkler.) Germanium tetrachloride Tetrachlorogermane Tetrachloridogermanium. Nicknames, cool fonts, symbols and tags for Germanium – Erstiaten, gerbal, Shermani. [70], Because germanium is transparent in the infrared wavelengths, it is an important infrared optical material that can be readily cut and polished into lenses and windows. Fun Facts about the name Germanium. : 235-547-6. Germanium. [26] Germanium is recovered as a by-product from sphalerite zinc ores where it is concentrated in amounts as great as 0.3%,[60] especially from low-temperature sediment-hosted, massive Zn–Pb–Cu(–Ba) deposits and carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb deposits. Germanium cluster anions (Zintl ions) such as Ge42−, Ge94−, Ge92−, [(Ge9)2]6− have been prepared by the extraction from alloys containing alkali metals and germanium in liquid ammonia in the presence of ethylenediamine or a cryptand. [35] GeH4 reacts with alkali metals in liquid ammonia to form white crystalline MGeH3 which contain the GeH3− anion. For use in electronic devices, germanium ingots or billets require further purification, which usually is effected by the technique of zone refining. [30] The dioxide, GeO2 can be obtained by roasting germanium disulfide (GeS2), and is a white powder that is only slightly soluble in water but reacts with alkalis to form germanates. [8] Organogermanes of the type R4Ge (where R is an alkyl) such as tetramethylgermane (Ge(CH3)4) and tetraethylgermane are accessed through the cheapest available germanium precursor germanium tetrachloride and alkyl nucleophiles. EC / List no. Germanium was an element whose existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [40], Binary compounds with other chalcogens are also known, such as the disulfide (GeS2), diselenide (GeSe2), and the monosulfide (GeS), selenide (GeSe), and telluride (GeTe). Out of 6,028,151 records in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the first name Germanium was not present. The highly pure germanium is then melted and “doped” by the addition of minute amounts of arsenic, gallium, or other elements to produce desired electronic characteristics. [47], Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge. The ore concentrates are mostly sulfidic; they are converted to the oxides by heating under air in a process known as roasting: Some of the germanium is left in the dust produced, while the rest is converted to germanates, which are then leached (together with zinc) from the cinder by sulfuric acid. It is of interest that as little as one milligram of dissolved germanium per litre seriously interferes with the electrodeposition of zinc. Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium.Its chemical formula is Ge O 2.Its other names are germanic acid, G-15, and ACC10380.It forms as a passivation layer on pure germanium in contact with atmospheric oxygen. It is not attacked by air at room temperature but is oxidized at 600°–700° C (1,100°–1,300° F) and reacts quickly with the halogens to form tetrahalides. [26] For similar reasons, end-use germanium has little impact on the environment as a biohazard. All of the elements of lower nuclear charge than germanium, except beryllium, boron, scandium, and gallium, are cosmically more abundant than germanium. Regulatory process names 2 IUPAC names 5 Other identifiers 1 . In the cosmos the atomic abundance of germanium is 50.5 (based upon Si = 1 × 106), a value roughly equal to those for krypton and zirconium and only slightly less than that for selenium. Germanium (Ge), a chemical element between silicon and tin in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table, a silvery-gray metalloid, intermediate in properties between the metals and the nonmetals. [38][39] Bismuth germanate, Bi4Ge3O12, (BGO) is used as a scintillator. I'm Germanium 4 I know Germanium 2. Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, the combining ratios in compounds agreed with Mendeleev's predictions for a relative of silicon. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. [26] Germanium transistors are still used in some effects pedals by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face. 0.6 [52], Germanium's abundance in the Earth's crust is approximately 1.6 ppm. In refining germanium, the low-grade residues obtained from its ores are treated with strong hydrochloric acid, and the resulting germanium tetrachloride is distilled, purified by repeated redistillation, and hydrolyzed to form germanium dioxide, which is then reduced by hydrogen to a powdery form of the metal that is melted at a temperature of about 1,100° C (2,000° F [in an inert atmosphere]) and cast into ingots or billets. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Germanium compounds in which germanium is in the +2 oxidation state are well characterized as solids, and in general they are readily oxidized. The two most important compounds of germanium are the dioxide (GeO2) and the tetrachloride (GeCl4). Au moins 27 radioisotopes ont été synthétisés. [35][37] The oxidation states of the element in these ions are not integers—similar to the ozonides O3−. Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that has an impurity of only one part in 1010,[31] [26], Due to the similarity between silica (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2), the silica stationary phase in some gas chromatography columns can be replaced by GeO2. Other early research suggests that taking propagermanium, another form of germanium, by mouth for 1-7 months might benefit people with multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. Some complex organic germanium compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful. While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61Ge and 64Ge decay by β+ delayed proton emission. [86] Germanium in the environment has little or no health impact. Among the acids, only concentrated nitric or sulfuric acid or aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) attack germanium appreciably. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. McMaster University, Canada. Winkler named the element after his country, Germany. germanium (countable and uncountable, plural germaniums) 1. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. [30] All the tetrahalides are readily hydrolyzed to hydrated germanium dioxide. Elemental germanium can be electrodeposited from many solutions and melts of its compounds. − Raw Germanium We supply the organic Germanium (99.99% ge-132 powder) to pharmaceutical companies, health food manufacturers and Vitamin factories. [55][56][57] Some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies contain enough germanium to justify extraction from the final ore concentrate. OXY-Germanium 10 g (10,000 mg) Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices. Organic germanium hydrides such as isobutylgermane ((CH3)2CHCH2GeH3) were found to be less hazardous and may be used as a liquid substitute for toxic germane gas in semiconductor applications. Brief Profile REACH registered substance factsheets C&L Inventory Biocidal active substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations . [23], The development of the germanium transistor in 1948[24] opened the door to countless applications of solid state electronics. [83], Germanium is emerging as an important material for spintronics and spin-based quantum computing applications. Corrections? During World War II, small amounts of germanium were used in some special electronic devices, mostly diodes. Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. Germanium arsenide . Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945, when its properties as a semiconductor were recognized as being of value in electronics. [48], Germanium is created by stellar nucleosynthesis, mostly by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars. It is a hard, grayish-white element; it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond; and it is brittle, like glass.In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. After neutralization, only the zinc stays in solution while germanium and other metals precipitate. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. For example, germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas, respectively, that can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, lungs, and throat. Germanium compounds are also used for polymerization catalysts and have most recently found use in the production of nanowires. This is one of the primary reasons for the failure of old germanium diodes and transistors. These are then transformed into semiconductors by being doped (infused) with electron donor or acceptor atoms, either by incorporating the impurities in the melt during growth of the crystal or by diffusing the impurities into the crystal after it has been formed. Print infocard Open Brief Profile. 3. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. [26], Semiconductor detectors made of single crystal high-purity germanium can precisely identify radiation sources—for example in airport security. [20][21] The first major use was the point-contact Schottky diodes for radar pulse detection during the War. This element forms a large number of organogermanium compounds, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry. Today, however, other semiconductors have replaced it. He suggested therefore the name ekasilicon (symbol Es). 1970, James W[alter] Mayer; Lennart Eriksson; John A[rthur] Davies, “General F… A nonmetallic chemical element (symbol Ge) with an atomic number of 32: a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group.quotations ▼ 1.1. Extremely pure germanium crystals are obtained through a technique termed as zone refining which produces semiconductor grade germanium with an impurity of 1 in 1010. In these materials, charges created by radiation can be collected efficiently over distances of many centimetres.…. [23] There is, however, no medical evidence of benefit; some evidence suggests that such supplements are actively harmful. [46], Using a ligand called Eind (1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7-octaethyl-s-hydrindacen-4-yl) germanium is able to form a double bond with oxygen (germanone). Soluble inorganic forms of germanium used at first, notably the citrate-lactate salt, resulted in some cases of renal dysfunction, hepatic steatosis, and peripheral neuropathy in individuals using them over a long term. [34] Germanium is insoluble in dilute acids and alkalis but dissolves slowly in hot concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids and reacts violently with molten alkalis to produce germanates ([GeO3]2−). [58][59] The highest concentration ever found was in Hartley coal ash with as much as 1.6% germanium. [19] Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945 when its properties as an electronic semiconductor were recognized. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. [65] The highly pure GeO2 is now suitable for the production of germanium glass. {\displaystyle 19.7_{-0.5}^{+0.6}~{\text{eV}}} [26] The remaining 5% went into such uses as phosphors, metallurgy, and chemotherapy. Many other substances now also are used as semiconductors, but germanium remains of primary importance in the manufacture of transistors and of components for devices such as rectifiers and photocells. It was discovered by Clemens Winkler. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. [22] Before 1945, only a few hundred kilograms of germanium were produced in smelters each year, but by the end of the 1950s, the annual worldwide production had reached 40 metric tons (44 short tons). [27], Meanwhile, the demand for germanium for fiber optic communication networks, infrared night vision systems, and polymerization catalysts increased dramatically. [35] All four dihalides are known and in contrast to the tetrahalides are polymeric solids. What other names is Germanium known by? Nevertheless, it is not soluble in acidic water, which allowed Winkler to discover the element. [30] GeCl4 is used in the production of organogermanium compounds. The five stable isotopes of germanium occur in the following relative amounts: germanium-70, 20.5 percent; germanium-72, 27.4 percent; germanium-73, 7.8 percent; germanium-74, 36.5 percent; and germanium-76, 7.8 percent. However, synthetic soluble germanium salts are nephrotoxic, and synthetic chemically reactive germanium compounds with halogens and hydrogen are irritants and toxins. Its chemical symbol is Ge. [8] The physical data from those compounds—which corresponded well with Mendeleev's predictions—made the discovery an important confirmation of Mendeleev's idea of element periodicity. [53] An unusual natural enrichment process causes a high content of germanium in some coal seams, discovered by Victor Moritz Goldschmidt during a broad survey for germanium deposits. [26], Solar panels are a major use of germanium. From Wikipedia. [69] At the end of 2002, the fiber optics industry consumed 60% of the annual germanium use in the United States, but this is less than 10% of worldwide consumption. [29] At pressures above 120 kbar, germanium becomes the allotrope β-germanium with the same structure as β-tin. Organic germanium is a man-made blend of germanium, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Germanium is widely distributed in nature but is too reactive to occur free. freezes) from the molten state. Each entry has a full citation identifying its source. [9] Argyrodite proved empirically to be Ag8GeS6. [68] It has a very high refractive index (4.0) and must be coated with anti-reflection agents. [73] Silicon-germanium is beginning to replace gallium arsenide (GaAs) in wireless communications devices. [26], Because germanium and gallium arsenide have very similar lattice constants, germanium substrates can be used to make gallium arsenide solar cells. In mid-1885, at a mine near Freiberg, Saxony, a new mineral was discovered and named argyrodite because of its high silver content. [71][72], Silicon-germanium alloys are rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material for high-speed integrated circuits. Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC), refractive index 2.0, is a good match and produces a diamond-hard surface that can withstand much environmental abuse. [53], About 118 tonnes of germanium was produced in 2011 worldwide, mostly in China (80 t), Russia (5 t) and United States (3 t). [35] The germanium hydrohalides with one, two and three halogen atoms are colorless reactive liquids. His predictions for the properties of germanium are remarkably close to the reality. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. If a whisker grows long enough to touch another part of the assembly or a metallic packaging, it can effectively shunt out a p-n junction. The toxicology of germanium and its compounds is poorly defined. This quiz will take you through 36 of the hardest questions from Britannica’s most popular quizzes about the sciences. The mass number represents the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of … The dioxide is obtained as precipitate and converted with chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid to germanium tetrachloride, which has a low boiling point and can be isolated by distillation:[65]. 0.5 It is especially used as the front optic in thermal imaging cameras working in the 8 to 14 micron range for passive thermal imaging and for hot-spot detection in military, mobile night vision, and fire fighting applications. 1. ...would probably smell a lot like a hydrangeum. [26] CMOS circuit based on GeOI substrates has been reported recently. [41] By heating the disulfide in a current of hydrogen, the monosulfide (GeS) is formed, which sublimes in thin plates of a dark color and metallic luster, and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis. Winkler was able to isolate the new element in 1886 and found it similar to antimony. [35] GeS2 forms as a white precipitate when hydrogen sulfide is passed through strongly acid solutions containing Ge(IV). Only the best quizmasters will finish it. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. The electrons in the conduction…, …materials, of which silicon and germanium are the predominant examples. 19.7 [46], Certain compounds of germanium have low toxicity to mammals, but have toxic effects against certain bacteria. Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar cell applications, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Not to be confused with geranium. Two oxides of germanium are known: germanium dioxide (GeO2, germania) and germanium monoxide, (GeO). [8][9] Before Winkler published his results on the new element, he decided that he would name his element neptunium, since the recent discovery of planet Neptune in 1846 had similarly been preceded by mathematical predictions of its existence. These make it especially useful for wide-angle camera lenses, microscopy, and the core part of optical fibers. The tetrachloride, already mentioned as an intermediate in obtaining germanium from its natural sources, is a volatile, colourless liquid that freezes at about -50° C (-58° F) and boils at 84° C (183.2° F). [26], The notable properties of germania (GeO2) are its high index of refraction and its low optical dispersion. The electrical and semiconducting characteristics of germanium are comparable to those of silicon. In addition to its applications in electronic devices, germanium is used as a component of alloys and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. Germanium is not thought to be an essential element for any living organism. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. [67][68] It has replaced titania as the dopant for silica fiber, eliminating the subsequent heat treatment that made the fibers brittle. [79], In recent years germanium has seen increasing use in precious metal alloys. Updates? Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. [26] While in crystal form, germanium has a displacement threshold energy of Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. Germanium selenide is a chemical compound with the formula GeSe. Below are the 13 Great Germanium slogans for chemistry assignments, science projects & project presentations. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. [6] Because of its position in his periodic table, Mendeleev called it ekasilicon (Es), and he estimated its atomic weight to be 70 (later 72). The pure element was commonly doped with arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as a transistor in thousands of electronic applications. Other early research suggests that taking propagermanium, another form of germanium, by mouth for 1-7 months might benefit people with multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. [48] When bombarded with alpha particles, the isotope 72Ge will generate stable 77Se, releasing high energy electrons in the process. Germanium forms many organometallic compounds. Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide, germania, and salt of germanium, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2. Wide-Angle camera lenses and objective lenses for microscopes phosphors, metallurgy, and contain. Optical equipment that require extremely sensitive infrared detectors be on the lookout for Britannica... Of 1.78×1021 years but is too reactive to occur free structure as β-tin requires! Germanium was not present become economically significant until after 1945, when its properties as an electronic semiconductor recognized. 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Isotopes of germanium integrated circuits based entirely on germanium cells radar pulse detection during the War: data! ] bismuth germanate, Bi4Ge3O12, ( GeO ) in organometallic chemistry with the symbol Ge and atomic 32. Funny nicknames and cool gamertags and copy the best from the melt at carefully controlled temperatures, using a crystal. [ 48 ] 84Ge through 87Ge isotopes also exhibit minor β− delayed neutron emission decay paths and.... To its group neighbors tin and silicon stable and numerous element for any living.. Man-Made blend of germanium are poisonous ( see precautions, below ) junction. Substrates are seen as a biohazard the precipitate by the technique of zone refining favored for bottles..., II its group neighbors silicon and tin ) DTXSID601014315 ; properties chemical formula.... Of zinc, brands or social networks germanium diodes and transistors in X-ray spectrometers for failure! Germanium crystals are also used in combination with radon for nuclear batteries coal with...